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Medicine, South Africa

Liu F.,Jilin University | Sun G.-Q.,Inner Mongolia University of Science and Technology | Gao H.-Y.,Jilin University | Li R.-S.,Institute of Infectious Diseases | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Surgical Research | Year: 2013

Background Angelicin is a furocoumarin found in Psoralea corylifolia L. fruit. The purpose of this study was to investigate the protective ability of angelicin against inflammation in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells and LPS-induced in vivo acute lung injury model. Materials and methods The concentrations of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin (IL)-6 in the culture supernatants of RAW 264.7 cells were determined 24 h after LPS administration. ALI was induced by intratracheal instillation of LPS. Six hours after LPS inhalation, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung tissue samples were obtained for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, histologic, and Western blotting analyses. Results The results showed that pretreatment with angelicin markedly downregulated TNF-α and IL-6 levels in vitro and in vivo, and significantly decreased the amount of inflammatory cells, lung wet-to-dry weight ratio, and myeloperoxidase activity in LPS-induced ALI mice. Furthermore, Western blotting analysis results demonstrated that angelicin blocked the phosphorylation of IκBα, NF-κBp65, p38 MAPK, and JNK in LPS-induced ALI. Conclusions These results suggest that angelicin was potentially advantageous to prevent inflammatory diseases by inhibiting NF-κB and MAPK pathways. Our data indicated that angelicin might be a potential new agent for prevention of inflammatory reactions and diseases in the clinic. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source


Zhong Y.,Institute of Infectious Diseases
Virology journal | Year: 2011

The mimotopes of viruses are considered as the good targets for vaccine design. We prepared mimotopes against multiple subtypes of influenza A and evaluate their immune responses in flu virus challenged Balb/c mice. The mimotopes of influenza A including pandemic H1N1, H3N2, H2N2 and H1N1 swine-origin influenza virus were screened by peptide phage display libraries, respectively. These mimotopes were engineered in one protein as multi- epitopes in Escherichia coli (E. coli) and purified. Balb/c mice were immunized using the multi-mimotopes protein and specific antibody responses were analyzed using hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The lung inflammation level was evaluated by hematoxylin and eosin (HE). Linear heptopeptide and dodecapeptide mimotopes were obtained for these influenza virus. The recombinant multi-mimotopes protein was a 73 kDa fusion protein. Comparing immunized infected groups with unimmunized infected subsets, significant differences were observed in the body weight loss and survival rate. The antiserum contained higher HI Ab titer against H1N1 virus and the lung inflammation level were significantly decreased in immunized infected groups. Phage-displayed mimotopes against multiple subtypes of influenza A were accessible to the mouse immune system and triggered a humoral response to above virus. Source


Chen W.L.,Institute of Infectious Diseases
Zhonghua gan zang bing za zhi = Zhonghua ganzangbing zazhi = Chinese journal of hepatology | Year: 2011

To explore the transmission routes, genotypes/subtypes distribution and genetic character of HCV in HIV/HCV co-infected and HCV mono-infected individuals in Guangdong Province. Reverse transcription (RT) nested PCR was performed to amplify the HCV NS5B gene region from 95 HIV/HCV co-infected and 99 HCV mono-infected individuals lived in Guangdong province. The PCR products were then sequenced for HCV subtyping. Genetic analysis was done by MEGA4 software. (1) HIV/HCV co-infected individuals infected HCV mostly through injection drug use (IDU, 78.9%), the HCV subtypes were identified as 6a (53.7%), 3a (17.9%), 1b (15.8%), 3b (11.6%) and 1a (1.0%) respectively, the genetic distance within subtype 1b was longer than those within other subtypes, the predominant HCV subtype in HIV/HCV co-infected individuals infected through IDU was 6a (60.0%). (2) HCV mono-infected individuals infected HCV mostly through blood or blood products transfusions (80.8%), the HCV subtypes were identified as 1b (67.7%), 6a (17.2%), 3a (6.1%), 2a (5.0%), 3b (2.0%), 4a (1.0%) and 5a (1.0%) respectively, the genetic distance within subtype 1b was also longer than those within other subtypes, the predominant HCV subtype in HCV mono-infected individuals infected through blood or blood products transfusions was 1b (76.2%). The diversity of HCV subtypes in HIV/HCV co-infected and HCV mono-infected individuals in Guangdong Province was high, both the major transmission route and HCV subtype between HIV/HCV co-infected individuals and HCV mono-infected individuals were different. Source


Baldanti F.,Virology Unit | Baldanti F.,Experimental Research Laboratory | Paolucci S.,Virology Unit | Gulminetti R.,Experimental Research Laboratory | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Medical Virology | Year: 2010

The emergence of drug-resistance mutations in HIV-1 integrase of patients receiving HAART salvage regimens including raltegravir was investigated in 11 heavily pretreated patients (median number of treatment failures 12, range 5-22) within an expanded access program in Pavia, Italy. HIV-1 RNA levels in plasma, CD4 + T-cell counts and sequencing of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT), protease (PR), gp41, and integrase geneswere performed at baseline and after 1, 2, 3, 6, and 12months. The treatment baseline median HIV-1 RNA levels in plasma decreased from 7,510 (range118-407,107) to<50 copies/ml (range< 50-7,562), while median CD4 + T-cell counts remained unchanged (from 212 cells/ml, range 10-764 to 262 cells/μl, range 13-760). Mutations at positions involved in raltegravir resistance (E92G, G140S, Q148H, and N155H) were detected in 4 of 11 (36.3%) patients as early as 1month after initiating salvage HAART. Of note, the E→G change at codon 92 was not reported previously. In two patients with raltegravir resistance, the simultaneous appearance of additionalmutations (Y143R and E170A) with an unclear impact on susceptibility to raltegravir or on integrase activity was observed. It is concluded that raltegravir resistant HIV-1 strains may emerge as early as 1month after initiating HAART salvage regimens. A newmutation associated with the emergence of raltegravir resistance is described, and the simultaneous appearance of primary and secondary mutations was observed. The effect of single and multiple mutations on integrase activity, raltegravir susceptibility, and on the capacity of viral replication remains to be elucidated. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Source


Li Y.,Peking Union Medical College | Wang Q.,Capital Medical University | Wang Q.,Institute of Infectious Diseases | Yao X.,Peking Union Medical College
European Journal of Pharmacology | Year: 2010

The herbal products baicalin, baicalein, chlorogenic acid, and ginsenoside Rf have multiple pharmacological effects and are extensively used in alternative and/or complementary therapies. The present study investigated whether baicalin, baicalein, chlorogenic acid, and ginsenoside Rf induced the expression of the cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) and multi-drug resistance 1 (MDR1) genes through the pregnane X receptor and constitutive androstane receptor pathways. Real time PCR, western blotting, and a luminescent assay were used to assess the induction of gene expression and activity of CYP3A4 and MDR1 by the test compounds. The interactions of baicalein/chlorogenic acid/ginsenoside Rf with constitutive androstane receptor and pregnane X receptor were evaluated using luciferase reporter and gel shift assays. Baicalein induced the expression of CYP3A4 and MDR1 mRNA by activating pregnane X receptor and constitutive androstane receptor. Chlorogenic acid and ginsenoside Rf showed a relatively weak effect on CYP3A4 promoter activation only in HepG2 cells cotransfected with constitutive androstane receptor and demonstrated no effects on MDR1 via either the constitutive androstane receptor or pregnane X receptor pathway. Baicalin had no effect on either CYP3A4 or MDR1 gene expression. In conclusion, baicalein has the potential to up-regulate CYP3A4 and MDR1 through the direct activation of the constitutive androstane receptor and pregnane X receptor pathways. Chlorogenic acid and ginsenoside Rf only induced constitutive androstane receptor-mediated CYP3A4 expression. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. Source

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