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Huang Y.,CAS Wuhan Institute of Virology | Mao P.,Institute of Infectious Disease | Wang H.,CAS Wuhan Institute of Virology
Clinical Microbiology and Infection

A novel parvovirus, human bocavirus (HBoV), was first discovered in children with respiratory tract infections in Sweden. A retrospective study of HBoV in faecal samples from children suffering from diarrhea, covering a 3-year period (November 2000 to October 2003) in Wuhan, China, was undertaken. PCR assays were used to evaluate 214 faecal samples and to determine the role of HBoV in diarrhoea. Among 196 virus-infected children with diarrhoea, 2.55% were HBoV-positive; however, all HBoV-positive patients were co-infected with common enteric viruses. This result does not support the notion that HBoV is a viral agent causing acute diarrhoea. © 2009 The Authors. Journal Compilation © 2009 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Source

Shan A.L.,Institute of Infectious Disease
Zhonghua yu fang yi xue za zhi [Chinese journal of preventive medicine]

To investigate the immunization status of hepatitis B vaccine who were inoculated at birth, HBV infections and the vaccine booster effect in the first-year middle school students (12 - 14 years old). A cluster, stratified simplified random sampling method was administrated. The sample size was at least 218, which was calculated by Epi Info 3.3.2 software at 53% the minimum acceptable anti-HBs positive rate and 95% confidence level. A total of 250 and 236 students participated in the infection status and booster immunization effects investigation. The HBsAg, anti-HBs and anti-HBc IgG were detected by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). HBV DNA was detected by fluorescence quantitative PCR, and the diagnostic test kit were produced respectively by ABBOTT, Diasorin and Beijing Wantai Biological Pharmacy Enterprise Co. For the immunization status before booster: the positive rate of anti-HBs was 62.80% (157/250), the GMT was 73.79 IU/L; the currently HBV infection rate (HBsAg and anti-HBc positive) was 2.80% (7/250). After injection, the anti-HBs positive rate was 94.92% (224/236). Compared with the before booster results, the significant difference was observed (χ(2) = 73.92, P = 0.00). The GMT was 521.15 IU/L, comparing with the before booster results, there was significant difference (t = 15.98, P = 0.00). The anti-HBs conversion rate (from negative to positive) was 91.86% (79/86) after immune-enhancement; of which, 11 students got the second dose of booster vaccine who are no-responders after first injection, in addition 8 students got the anti-HBs. It is an effective method to put the first-year middle school students into the immune-enhancement program, so as to improve the immunization memory effect and avoid the loss of protective antibodies. Source

Wang X.J.,Institute of Infectious Disease
Zhonghua jie he he hu xi za zhi = Zhonghua jiehe he huxi zazhi = Chinese journal of tuberculosis and respiratory diseases

To understand the clinical features of critically ill patients with pandemic 2009 influenza A (H1N1) and investigate the risk factors associated with death cases. The clinical features of 55 critically ill patients with pandemic 2009 influenza A (H1N1) viral infection hospitalized at Beijing Ditan Hospital from October 3 to December 15, 2009 were retrospectively analyzed, and a comparative analysis was performed on the manifestations of the survival and the death groups of patients. There were 31 males and 24 females. The age ranged from 10 months to 84 year old, and the mean (SD) was 38 (20) year old. The critically ill cases were more in patients under age 65 (48/55), with obesity (33/49), with underlying diseases (26/49), and pregnancy (6/24). Both the survivors and non-survivors of patients had high fever, cough, sputum (some sputum with blood), dyspnea, räles of both lungs fields, and all further developed severe pneumonia. The patients also showed respiratory failure (54/55) and ARDS (26/55). All of them received oseltamivir therapy, and 38 patients received mechanical ventilation and 30 were given steroid therapy. Secondary infection occurred in 27 cases, and ventilator-associated pneumonia happened in 10 patients. In the early stage of onset, C-reactive protein (CRP) increased [(131 ± 130) mg/L] and low counts of T lymphocytes were present [CD(4)(+), CD(8)(+) T was (217 ± 139)/μl and (162 ± 82)/μl]. With the progress of disease, the non-survival cases had persistently increased CRP and the counts of T lymphocytes did not recover, while the secondary fungal infection was significantly higher than in the survivor cases (P < 0.05). By using BMI, underlying diseases, ARDS, the day of Oseltamivir initiated, steroid therapy, following bacterial and fungal infection as variables through logistic regression analysis, it was shown that higher BMI and following fungal infection were associated with higher fatal risks (OR was 6.512, 19.631 respectively, both of P value was low than 0.05). There was no death case who received oseltamivir treatment within 48 hours of onset of disease. Critical illness in pandemic 2009 influenza A (H1N1) was associated with patients under age 65, with obesity, underlying diseases, and pregnancy. Persistently increased CRP and lower counts of T lymphocytes were associated with unfavorable prognosis. The patients with higher BMI and secondary fungal infection had higher fatal risks. Oseltamivir treatments at early stage would probably reduce mortality. Source

Chi S.P.,Institute of Infectious Disease
Xi bao yu fen zi mian yi xue za zhi = Chinese journal of cellular and molecular immunology

To study the anti-tumor mechanisms of ascidiacea analog SC002. After treated the tumor cells with ascidiacea analog SC002, the changes of a serials of tumor associated cell signal molecules, including VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor), P53, P21 and Bcl-2 et al, were detected by Western blot; further more the expression of serum VEGF in tumor-bearing mice and the activity of Caspase-3, 8, 9 in tumor tissue were investigated by ELISA; at last. Ascidiacea analog SC002 can obviously induce the expression of P53, while decreasing the expression of Bcl-2 and VEGF, but have on effect on p21 in tumor tissue; ELISA shown that SC002 can also reduce the concentration of serum VEGF in tumor bearing mice, but did not affected the activity of Caspase-3, 8 and 9. SC002 have the anti-tumor function through promoting the expression of tumor suppressor gene p53, supress the expression of Bcl-2 and VEGF. This founding will provided an important base theory for it's further use as a novel anti-tumor drugs. Source

Nankumbi J.,Makerere University | Groves S.,Johns Hopkins University | Kyegombe N.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | Coutinho A.,Institute of Infectious Disease
BMC International Health and Human Rights

Background: Improving provider performance is central to strengthening health services in developing countries. Because of critical shortages of physicians, many clinics in sub-Saharan Africa are led by nurses. In addition to clinical skills, nurse managers need practical managerial skills and adequate resources to ensure procurement of essential supplies, quality assurance implementation, and productive work environment. Giving nurses more autonomy in their work empowers them in the workplace and has shown to create positive influence on work attitudes and behaviors. The Infectious Disease Institute, an affiliate of Makerere University College of Health Science, in an effort to expand the needed HIV services in the Ugandan capital, established a community-university partnership with the Ministry of Health to implement an innovative model to build capacity in HIV service delivery. This paper evaluates the impact on the nurses from this innovative program to provide more health care in six nurse managed Kampala City Council (KCC) Clinics. Methods. A mixed method approach was used. The descriptive study collected key informant interviews from the six nurse managers, and administered a questionnaire to 20 staff nurses between September and December 2009. Key themes were manually identified from the interviews, and the questionnaire data were analyzed using SPSS. Results: Introducing new HIV services into six KCC clinics was positive for the nurses. They identified the project as successful because of perceived improved environment, increase in useful in-service training, new competence to manage patients and staff, improved physical infrastructure, provision of more direct patient care, motivation to improve the clinic because the project acted on their suggestions, and involvement in role expansion. All of these helped empower the nurses, improving quality of care and increasing job satisfaction. Conclusions: This community-university HIV innovative model was successful from the point of view of the nurses and nurse managers. This model shows promise in increasing effective, quality health service; HIV and other programs can build capacity and empower nurses and nurse managers to directly implement such services. It also demonstrates how MakCHS can be instrumental through partnerships in designing and testing effective strategies, building human health resources and improving Ugandan health outcomes. © 2011 Nankumbi et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

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