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Portsmouth, United Kingdom

Janiszewska J.,Institute of Industrial Research | Sowinska M.,Polish Academy of Sciences | Rajnisz A.,National Institute of Public Health | Solecka J.,National Institute of Public Health | And 3 more authors.
Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry Letters | Year: 2012

A series of new cationic lipopeptides containing branched, amphiphilic polar head derived from (Lys)Lys(Lys) dendron and C 8 or C 12 chain at C-end were designed, synthesized and characterized. Antimicrobial in vitro activity expressed as minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was evaluated against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and yeasts from the Candida genus. A significant enhancement of antimicrobial potency along with increased selectivity against Candida reference strains was detected for derivatives with the C 12 residue. Several compounds were characterized by a low hemotoxicity. The antifungal activity of branched lipopeptides is multimodal and concentration dependent. Several compounds, studied in detail, induced potassium leakage from fungal cells, caused morphological alterations of fungal cells and inhibited activity of candidal β(1,3)-glucan synthase. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Mulvaney D.,Loughborough University | White J.,Loughborough University | Hamdi M.,Institute of Industrial Research
Intelligent Automation and Soft Computing | Year: 2010

Monitoring and prediction of passenger movements are able to generate timely heuristic information that reduces the complexity of the elevator dispatching task to one of finding the best route through already computed data. This paper demonstrates that such information, when used by heuristic search techniques, allows optimal dispatching solutions to be achieved in a practical elevator installation. Results are also included to demonstrate that a new search approach, when considered alongside existing well-known search methods, compares favorably in its application to real elevator dispatching problems. Copyright © 2010, TSI® Press.

Mzenda B.,Radiotherapy Physics Section | Hosseini-Ashrafi M.,Radiotherapy Physics Section | Palmer A.,Radiotherapy Physics Section | Liu H.,Institute of Industrial Research | Brown D.J.,Institute of Industrial Research
Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing | Year: 2010

In this study, we introduce a novel simulation technique to incorporate delineation errors into radiotherapy treatment margins and combine them with organ motion and set-up errors to investigate the cumulative dosimetric effects in different tumour sites. The effects of applying patient realignment correction protocols for radical treatments of prostate, lung and brain tumours were also modelled. Simulations were based on data from measurements using image-guidance techniques, including the use of fiducial markers in prostate and breathing correction techniques for the lung. The use of different sizes of planning target volume (PTV) margins was also evaluated. The prostate clinical target volumes' V99% showed up to 3.2% improvement with reduction in treatment uncertainties. For the lung plans, the V99% increased by up to an average of 10% with increase in treatment margin size from 0.5 to 1.5 cm. This improvement was, however, at the detriment of the dose delivered to the critical organs where the maximum dose received by the spinal cord increased by up to 0.5 Gy per fraction. These results were used to deduce the possible margin reductions and dose escalation achievable with reduced uncertainties. © 2010 International Federation for Medical and Biological Engineering.

Duku M.H.,University of Southampton | Duku M.H.,Institute of Industrial Research | Duku M.H.,Xian Jiaotong - Liverpool University | Gu S.,University of Southampton | And 2 more authors.
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2011

Biochar is being promoted for its potential to improve soil properties, crop productivity and carbon sequestration in soil. Obstacles that may hinder rapid adoption of biochar production systems include technology and production costs, and feedstock availability. In this paper, a review of biochar production potential in Ghana is given. The availability of potential feedstock for biochar production such as agricultural residues, forestry residues, wood processing waste, the organic portion of municipal solid waste and livestock manure, together with a brief description of biomass conversion routes for biochar production is also given. Furthermore, potential agronomic and environmental benefits that can be derived from the application of biochar in soils are discussed. It is concluded that the large availability of biomass resources in Ghana gives a great potential for biochar production in the country. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Duku M.H.,University of Southampton | Duku M.H.,Institute of Industrial Research | Gu S.,University of Southampton | Hagan E.B.,Institute of Industrial Research
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2011

Biomass is the major energy source in Ghana contributing about 64% of Ghana's primary energy supply. In this paper, an assessment of biomass resources and biofuels production potential in Ghana is given. The broad areas of energy crops, agricultural crop residues, forest products residues, urban wastes and animal wastes are included. Animal wastes are limited to those produced by domesticated livestock. Agricultural residues included those generated from sugarcane, maize, rice, cocoa, oil palm, coconut, sorghum and millet processing. The urban category is subdivided into municipal solid waste, food waste, sewage sludge or bio-solids and waste grease. The availability of these types of biomass, together with a brief description of possible biomass conversion routes, sustainability measures, and current research and development activities in Ghana is given. It is concluded that a large availability of biomass in Ghana gives a great potential for biofuels production from these biomass resources. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

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