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Pal A.K.,Vivekananda Institute of Medical science | Sur S.,Vivekananda Institute of Medical science | Pal J.,Vivekananda Institute of Medical science | Gupta A.K.,Institute of Hygiene and Public Health
Journal of Nepal Paediatric Society | Year: 2015

Introduction: The objectives of this study were to study the incidence and risk factors of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) among preterm low birth weight babies and its association with oxygen therapy. Material and Methods: During one year study period, 50 neonates, who had fulfilled the inclusion criteria (born at gestational age ≤ 35 wks), were included in the present study. They were examined by indirect ophthalmoscopy by an ophthalmologist in NICU or ophthalmology outdoor. Staging of ROP was done according to the International classification. Data obtained from this study were entered in Microsoft Excel and subsequently analysed in SPSS version 20.0. Results: Among study population, 12 neonates (24%) showed evidence of retinopathy of prematurity, and Stage 2 ROP was most common (41.7%) within this group. Those neonates who had born ≤28 wks gestational age, showed more incidence (75%) of ROP. There was significant association between ROP and prematurity, low birth weight, mechanical ventilation, duration and concentration of oxygen therapy. Conclusion: Apart from prematurity and low birth weight, oxygen therapy also carries significant risk for ROP. Thus, judicious use of oxygen in premature babies can reduce incidence of ROP significantly. © 2015, Nepal Paediatric Society (NEPAS). All rights reserved.

Vo T.H.,University of Tampere | Le N.H.,Institute of Hygiene and Public Health | Cao T.T.D.,Food Safety Agency | Nuorti J.P.,University of Tampere | Minh N.N.T.,Vietnam Field Epidemiology Training Programme
International Journal of Infectious Diseases | Year: 2014

Objectives: To identify the vehicle, source, and causative agent of a community-wide food-borne outbreak of gastroenteritis. Methods: We conducted a case-control study. Cases were city residents diagnosed with gastroenteritis and hospitalized in Ben Tre City from 22 to 25 May 2013; 41 cases were selected randomly from a list of hospitalized patients. Controls were age- and gender-matched healthy neighbours of cases. Participants were interviewed using a standard questionnaire. Samples from patients and food were tested at reference laboratories. We used conditional logistic regression to calculate matched odds ratios (mORs) for the association of gastroenteritis with food items consumed. Results: Of the 41 cases enrolled in the study, 61% were males and the median age was 33 years; cases resided in 12 wards of the City. Of 13 food items consumed by the cases, only stuffed bread was significantly associated with gastroenteritis (mOR 21.3, 95% confidence interval 6.3-71.8). Among the 29 cases who ate stuffed bread, the median time to illness onset was 9. h. Patient stool samples and bread samples were positive for Salmonella species. Conclusions: Stuffed bread was the likely vehicle of the outbreak. The laboratory testing capacity for serotypes of Salmonella should be strengthened in Vietnam. Food-handler training in basic food safety measures should be improved. © 2014 The Authors.

Vo T.H.,Institute of Hygiene and Public Health | Van Nguyen D.,Food Safety Agency of Binh Duong | Le L.T.K.,Food Safety Agency of Binh Duong | Phan L.T.,Vietnam Field Epidemiology Training Program | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Food Protection | Year: 2014

An outbreak of gastroenteritis occurred among workers of company X after eating lunch prepared by a catering service. Of 430 workers attending the meal, 56 were hospitalized with abdominal pain, diarrhea, vomiting, and nausea, according to the initial report. We conducted an investigation to identify the extent, vehicle, and source of the outbreak. In our case-control study, a case was a worker who attended the meal and who was hospitalized with acute gastroenteritis; controls were randomly selected from non-ill workers. Cases and controls were interviewed using a standard questionnaire. We used logistic regression to calculate adjusted odds ratios for the consumption of food items. Catering service facilities and food handlers working for the service were inspected. Food samples from the catering service were tested at reference laboratories. Of hospitalized cases, 54 fulfilled the case definition, but no stool specimens were collected for laboratory testing. Of four food items served during lunch, only ''squash and pork soup'' was significantly associated with gastroenteritis, with an adjusted odds ratio of 9.5 (95% CI 3.2, 27.7). The caterer did not separate cooked from raw foods but used the same counter for both. Cooked foods were kept at room temperature for about 4 h before serving. Four of 14 food handlers were not trained on basic food safety principles and did not have health certificates. Although no microbiological confirmation was obtained, our epidemiological investigation suggested that squash and pork soup caused the outbreak. Hospitals should be instructed to obtain stool specimens from patients with gastroenteritis. Food catering services should be educated in basic food safety measures. © International Association for Food Protection.

Vo T.H.,Institute of Hygiene and Public Health | Le N.H.,Institute of Hygiene and Public Health | Nuorti J.P.,University of Tampere
Journal of Infection in Developing Countries | Year: 2013

On July 20, 2010, three cases of cholera were reported from a district hospital in Ca Mau province, Vietnam. We investigated the likely source and mode of transmission of the outbreak. All hospitals in the province were requested to notify cases of acute watery diarrhoea. Epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory data were collected. Between July 12 and 22, seven cases with positive culture for Vibrio cholera were identified. Six cases were epidemiologically linked to the index case. Basic infection control practices were not in place at the hospital. Clinicians and public health staff should consider the possibility of nosocomial cholera transmission even in non-endemic areas. © 2013 Vo et al.

Vo T.H.,University of Tampere | Le N.H.,Institute of Hygiene and Public Health | Le A.T.N.,Institute of Hygiene and Public Health | Tran Minh N.N.,Vietnam Field Epidemiology Training Program | Nuorti J.P.,University of Tampere
Food Control | Year: 2015

Frequent foodborne outbreaks occurring in large canteens of factories and schools are a public health concern in Vietnam. Potential for contamination of food during the preparation phase has not yet been addressed by public health authorities, particularly the food-handlers' knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) regarding food safety. To identify training needs, we conducted an analytical cross-sectional study assessing KAP of food-handlers in large canteens of schools and factories in 2012. From a sampling frame of 169 large canteens (50 in schools and 119 in factories; a total of 3399 employees) in Southern Vietnam, 40 schools and 26 factories were selected on the basis of type of establishment; all food-handlers (N=909) in the selected canteens were interviewed by using standard questionnaire. After descriptive analysis, potential confounders were controlled by using logistic regression models to calculate prevalence odds ratios (PORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for differences in KAP between employees in schools and factories. A qualitative study of ten focus groups with participants selected by using maximum variation sampling was also conducted to identify training needs. Of the 909 food-handlers participating the study, 76% were females, 84% had secondary school or higher education; median age and work experience were 38 years and 36 months, respectively. Proportions of all participants whose KAP were considered adequate were 26%, 36%, and 26%, respectively. There were associations between knowledge and attitudes, and knowledge and practices. After controlling for gender, age, educational level, and length of work experience in logistic regression models, the odds of food-handlers in schools reporting adequate KAP were about twice as high as those for food-handlers in factories. Among 66 investigated canteens, 9% did not separate raw food from cooked food area and 52% did not have standard rest rooms. Food-handlers' suggestions for training needs included appropriate location of the training venue at the work place, involvement of managers, fewer trainees per course, more practical exercises, and longer course duration. KAP of food-handlers were generally poor, especially among food-handlers working in factories. Public health authorities in Vietnam should prioritize food-handlers in factories for training courses. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

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