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Prague, Czech Republic

Andreotti G.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Boffetta P.,International Agency for Research on Cancer | Rosenberg P.S.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Berndt S.I.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | And 16 more authors.

Hypertension is a known risk factor for renal cell carcinoma (RCC), although the underlying biological mechanisms of its action are unknown. To clarify the role of hypertension in RCC, we examined the risk of RCC in relation to 142 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in eight genes having a role in blood pressure control.We analyzed 777 incident and histologically confirmed RCC cases and 1035 controls who completed an in-person interview as part of a multi-center, hospital-based case-control study in Central Europe. Genotyping was conducted with an Illumina® GoldenGate® Oligo Pool All assay using germ line DNA. Of the eight genes examined, AGT (angiotensinogen) was most strongly associated with RCC (minimum P-value permutation test 5 0.02). Of the 17 AGT tagging SNPs considered, associations were strongest for rs1326889 [odds ratio (OR) 5 1.35, 95% confidence interval (CI) 5 1.15-1.58] and rs2493137 (OR 5 1.31, 95% CI 5 1.12-1.54), which are located in the promoter. Stratified analysis revealed that the effects of the AGT SNPs were statistically significant in participants with hypertension or high body mass index (BMI) (≥25 kg/m2), but not in subjects without hypertension and with a normal BMI (<25 kg/m2). Also, haplotypes with riskconferring alleles of markers located in the promoter and intron 1 regions of AGT were significantly associated with RCC compared with the common haplotype in subjects with hypertension or high BMI (global P 5 0.003). Our findings suggest that common genetic variants of AGT, particularly those in the promoter, increase RCC risk among subjects who are hypertensive or overweight. Published by Oxford University Press 2010. Source

Consonni D.,Epidemiology Unit | Matteis S.D.,Heart Health | Pesatori A.C.,Epidemiology Unit | Bertazzi P.A.,Epidemiology Unit | And 42 more authors.
International Journal of Cancer

Bricklayers may be exposed to several lung carcinogens, including crystalline silica and asbestos. Previous studies that analyzed lung cancer risk among these workers had several study design limitations. We examined lung cancer risk among bricklayers within SYNERGY, a large international pooled analysis of case-control studies on lung cancer and the joint effects of occupational carcinogens. For men ever employed as bricklayers we estimated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) adjusted for study center, age, lifetime smoking history and employment in occupations with exposures to known or suspected lung carcinogens. Among 15,608 cases and 18,531 controls, there were 695 cases and 469 controls who had ever worked as bricklayers (OR: 1.47; 95% CI: 1.28-1.68). In studies using population controls the OR was 1.55 (95% CI: 1.32-1.81, 540/349 cases/controls), while it was 1.24 (95% CI: 0.93-1.64, 155/120 cases/controls) in hospital-based studies. There was a clear positive trend with length of employment (p<0.001). The relative risk was higher for squamous (OR: 1.68, 95% CI: 1.42-1.98, 309 cases) and small cell carcinomas (OR: 1.78, 95% CI: 1.44-2.20, 140 cases), than for adenocarcinoma (OR: 1.17, 95% CI: 0.95-1.43, 150 cases) (p-homogeneity: 0.0007). ORs were still elevated after additional adjustment for education and in analyses using blue collar workers as referents. This study provided robust evidence of increased lung cancer risk in bricklayers. Although non-causal explanations cannot be completely ruled out, the association is plausible in view of the potential for exposure to several carcinogens, notably crystalline silica and to a lesser extent asbestos. © 2014 UICC. Source

Marrone G.,Udine Hospital | Rosso I.,Udine Hospital | Moretti R.,Udine Hospital | Valent F.,Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology | Romanello C.,Udine Hospital
European Journal of Nutrition

Purpose: To assess vitamin D status in children aged 2-220 months in northeastern Italy (latitude 46°). Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) concentration was assessed in 93 children afferent to the Pediatric Department of the Hospital of Udine. Methods: Vitamin D status was defined as follows: sufficient with serum 25OHD between 50 and 250 nmol/l (level 4); insufficient between 37.5 and 50 nmol/l (level 3); deficient less than 37.5 nmol/l (level 2); severely deficient if less than 12.5 nmol/l (level 1). We investigated the potential risk factors of vitamin D deficit. Results: We found that six children (6.4%) had level 1, 36 (38.7%) had level 2, 9 (9.7%) had level 3, and only 45.2% had sufficient level of 25OHD. Immigrate children had a higher risk for vitamin D deficiency if compared with Italians: 75% of non-Italian children had an insufficient 25OHD level compared with 47.0% of Italian children (p = 0.0036). There was a marked seasonal effect on 25OHD level: when plasma sample was withdrawn between November and May, only 29.4% of children showed sufficient vitamin D level, while 70.5% was insufficient (p < 0.0001). Among the obese children, 9.0% had sufficient level of 25OHD with 90% being deficient (p = 0.01). We did not find any significant difference in vitamin D status among children in different age groups. Conclusion: Vitamin D deficiency is common in children living in northeastern Italy. The risk factors were winter season for blood withdrawal, non-Caucasian race, and obesity. These high-risk groups should be targeted for screening and educated about the need of sunlight exposure. © Springer-Verlag 2011. Source

Zmeskal M.,Regional Hospital Kolin | Kralikova E.,Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology | Kurcova I.,Charles University | Pafko P.,Charles University | And 4 more authors.
Zdravstveno Varstvo

Smoking is associated with a higher incidence of post-lung transplantation complications and mortality. Prior to inclusion on the lung transplant waiting list in the Czech Republic, patients are supposed to be tobacco free for at least 6 months. Our aim was to determine the prevalence of smoking, validated by urinary cotinine, among patients post lung transplantation and prior to inclusion on the transplant waiting list. Methods. Between 2009 and 2012, we conducted a cross-sectional survey of urinary cotinine to assess tobacco exposure in 203 patients in the Lung Transplant Program in the Czech Republic. We measured urinary cotinine in 163 patients prior to inclusion on the transplantation waiting list, and 53 patients post bilateral lung transplantation. Results.15.1% (95% CI 0.078 to 0.269) of all lung transplant recipients had urinary cotinine levels corresponding to active smoking; and a further 3.8% (95% CI 0.007 to 0.116) had borderline results. Compared to patients with other diagnoses, patients with COPD were 35 times more likely to resume smoking post-transplantation (95% CI 1.92 to 637.37, p-value 0.016). All patients who tested positive for urinary cotinine levels were offered smoking cessation support. Only one Tx patient sought treatment for tobacco dependence, but was unsuccessful. Conclusion. Smoking resumption may be an underrecognized risk for lung transplantation recipients, particularly among patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. More rigorous screening, as well as support and treatment to stop smoking among these patients are needed. © 2016 National Institute of Public Health, Slovenia. Source

Zabrocka L.,Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology | Langer K.,ckiewicz University In Poznan | Michalski A.,Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology | Kocik J.,Military Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology | Langer J.J.,ckiewicz University In Poznan
Lab on a Chip - Miniaturisation for Chemistry and Biology

A microfluidic device for studies on the germination of bacterial spores (e.g. Bacillus subtilis) based on non-specific interactions on the nanoscale is presented. A decrease in the population of spores during germination followed by the appearance of transition forms and an increase in the number of vegetative cells can be registered directly and simultaneously by using the microfluidic device, which is equipped with a conductive polymer layer (polyaniline) in the form of a nano-network. The lab-on-a-chip-type device, operating in a continuous flow regime, allows monitoring of germination of bacterial spores and analysis of the process in detail. The procedure is fast and accurate enough for quantitative real-time monitoring of the main steps of germination, including final transformation of the spores into vegetative cells. All of this is done without the use of biomarkers or any bio-specific materials, such as enzymes, antibodies and aptamers, and is simply based on an analysis of physicochemical interactions on the nanoscale level. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2015. Source

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