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Wolman R.,Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital | Wolman R.,National Institute of Dance Medicine and Science | Wyon M.A.,Jerwood Center for the Prevention and Treatment of Dance Injuries | Wyon M.A.,University of Wolverhampton | And 9 more authors.
Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport | Year: 2013

Objective: Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D is produced by the exposure of the skin to sunlight. Therefore athletes who train indoors, such as dancers, are vulnerable to vitamin D deficiency. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D status in UK professional dancers during periods of reduced and increased sunlight exposure (i.e., winter vs. summer), and to assess the impact on bone metabolism and risk of injury. Design: Cohort study. Methods: 19 elite classical ballet dancers (age 26. ±. 8.86. yr; height 1.66 ± 8.84. m; mass 54.3 ± 10.47. kg) were monitored over a 6 month period for 25-hydroxyvitamin D, PTH and blood serum bone turnover markers (CTX and PINP) along with injury data. Repeated measure ANOVA and Wilcoxon and Chi-square analyses were used and significance was set at p≤. 0.05. Results: Significant changes were noted between the winter and summer test dates for 25-hydroxyvitamin D (14.9. ng/ml vs. 23.9. ng/ml; p <. 0.001), PTH (38.7. pg/ml vs. 26.3. pg/ml; p < 0.001) and PINP (89.9. ng/ml vs. 67.6. ng/ml; p < 0.01). The oral contraceptive had a significant effect on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, PTH and CTX. Soft tissue injuries were significantly lower in summer compared to winter period (winter = 24, summer = 13; p < 0.05). Conclusions: Professional ballerinas characterized by a high incidence of low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels which improve marginally in the summer. These dancers also demonstrate a higher injury incidence in the winter. Oral contraception seems to increase serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and has a positive effect on bone metabolism. © 2013 Sports Medicine Australia. Source

Stavropoulos-Kalinoglou A.,Dudley Group of Hospitals NHS Trust | Stavropoulos-Kalinoglou A.,University of Birmingham | Metsios G.S.,Dudley Group of Hospitals NHS Trust | Metsios G.S.,University of Wolverhampton | And 5 more authors.
Rheumatology | Year: 2011

Obesity is a major threat for public health and its study has attracted significant attention in the general population, predominantly due to its association with significant metabolic and cardiovascular complications. In RA research, BMI is frequently reported as a demographical variable, but obesity, as such, has received little interest. This is surprising, in view of the clear associations of obesity with other arthritides, particularly OA, but also in view of the now-clear association of RA with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. In this review, we summarize the studies that have looked into obesity in the RA population, evaluate their findings, identify knowledge gaps and propose directions for future research. We also pose a question of high clinical and research significance: is the use of BMI still a valid way of assessing obesity in RA? © The Author 2010. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. Source

Kalyva A.,University of Kent | Kalyva A.,Institute of Human Performance and Rehabilitation | Schmidtmann A.,University of Kent | Geeves M.A.,University of Kent
Biochemistry | Year: 2012

Tropomyosin (Tm) is a dimer made of two alpha helical chains associated into a parallel coiled-coil. In mammalian skeletal and cardiac muscle, the Tm is expressed from two separate genes to give the α- and β-Tm isoforms. These associate in vivo to form homo- (α 2) and heterodimers (α•β) with little β 2 normally observed. The proportion of α 2 vs α•β varies across species and across muscle types from almost 100% α 2- to 50% α•β-Tm. The ratio can also vary during development and in disease. The functional significance of the presence of these two isoforms has not been defined because it is difficult to isolate or purify the α•β dimer for functional studies. Here we report an effective method for purifying bacterially expressed Tm as α•β dimers using a cleavable N-terminal tag on one of the two chains. The same method can be used to isolate Tm dimers in which one chain carries a mutation. We go on to show that the α•β dimers differ in key properties (actin affinity, thermal stability) from either the α 2- or β 2-Tm. However, the ability to regulate myosin binding when combined with cardiac troponin appears unaffected. © 2012 American Chemical Society. Source

Allen N.,Birmingham Royal Ballet Company | Allen N.,University of Wolverhampton | Allen N.,National Institute of Dance Medicine and Science | Nevill A.M.,University of Wolverhampton | And 6 more authors.
Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine | Year: 2013

OBJECTIVE:: The aim of this study was to determine whether an intervention with individualized conditioning program based on injury history and functional movement screening would be effective in reducing ballet injury incidence. DESIGN:: Prospective 3-year epidemiological study. SETTING:: Professional ballet company and its in-house medical facility. PARTICIPANTS:: Dancers from a professional ballet company over the 3-year study period. Participant numbers ranged from 52 to 58 (year 1: 52; year 2: 58; year 3: 53). INTERVENTIONS:: The intervention consisted of individual conditioning programs developed using injury history and functional movement screening. Analysis was undertaken of the all dancers who were present in the company during the study period. The significance of change in injuries over a 3-year period was determined using a Poisson distribution model. MAIN OUTCOMES MEASURES:: To determine whether individual conditioning programs resulted in a decrease in injury incidence over the study period. RESULTS:: The injury count reduced significantly in years 2 and 3 (P < 0.001). Injury incidence for male dancers declined from year 1 (in year/1000 h) (4.76/1000 h) to year 2 (2.40/1000 h) and year 3 (2.22/1000 h). For women, a reduction in the injury incidence was observed from year 1 (4.14/1000 h) to year 2 (1.71/1000 h) and year 3 (1.81/1000 h). CONCLUSIONS:: Through prospective injury surveillance, we were able to demonstrate the benefit of individualized conditioning programs based on injury history and functional movement screening in reducing injuries in ballet. CLINICAL RELEVANCE:: The implementation of well-structured injury surveillance programs can impact on injury incidence through its influence on intervention programs. 2013 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Source

Wyon M.A.,University of Wolverhampton | Wyon M.A.,Jerwood Center for the Prevention and Treatment of Dance Injuries | Wyon M.A.,National Institute of Dance Medicine and Science | Koutedakis Y.,University of Wolverhampton | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport | Year: 2014

Objectives: Athletes who train indoors during the winter months exhibit low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations due to a lack of sunlight exposure. This has been linked to impaired exercise performance. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of oral vitamin D3 supplementation on selected physical fitness and injury parameters in elite ballet dancers. Design: Controlled prospective study. Methods: 24 elite classical ballet dancers (intervention n=17; control n=7) participated in a controlled 4-month oral supplementation of vitamin D3 (2000IU per day). Isometric muscular strength and vertical jump height were measured pre and post intervention. Injury occurrence during the intervention period was also recorded by the in-house medical team. Repeated measures ANOVA and Mann-Whitney-U statistical tests were used and significance was set at p≤0.05. Results: Significant increases were noted for the intervention group for isometric strength (18.7%, p<. 0.01) and vertical jump (7.1%, p<. 0.01). The intervention group also sustained significantly less injuries than the controls during the study period (p<. 0.01). Conclusions: Oral supplementation of vitamin D3 during the winter months has beneficial effects on muscular performance and injury occurrence in elite ballet dancers. © 2013 Sports Medicine Australia. Source

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