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Labruyere R.,University of Zurich | Labruyere R.,Institute of Human Movement science and Sport | Agarwala A.,Panorama Orthopedics and Spine Center | Curt A.,University of Zurich
Spine | Year: 2010

Study Design. Systematic review. Objective. To define the optimal time for initiation of rehabilitation and review the most clinically relevant outcome measures of upper and lower limb motor function of the rehabilitating spinal cord injured patient, using a systematic review and expert opinion. Summary of Background Data. Comprehensive rehabilitation programs are required for patients after spinal cord injury (SCI) as early as feasible. In a dedicated SCI rehabilitation setting, effective treatment and proper monitoring of spontaneous and rehabilitation-based motor function improvements by means of appropriate, valid, reliable and internationally accepted clinical assessment tools is warranted. Methods. Focused questions on key topics in rehabilitation of the spinal cord injured patient were defined by a panel of spine trauma surgeons. A keyword literature search for pertinent articles was conducted using multiple databases. Suitable articles were screened and the quality of evidence was graded and tabulated. Based on the evidence and expert opinion, recommendations were composed and rated as strong or weak. Results. The outcome measures literature search yielded a total of 1251 abstracts. Out of these 86 articles were studied in detail. One high quality study was found with 3 articles referring to it. Furthermore, there were 19 moderate quality studies, 39 low quality studies, and 25 very low quality studies. The timing literature search yielded 508 abstracts of which 3 articles focused on the question and were all graded as low quality. Conclusion. For general motor function, assessing the American Spinal Injury Association motor score and the Spinal Cord Independence Measure III is strongly recommended. The American Spinal Injury Association motor score is also useful in assessing upper- and lower-extremity motor function. For ambulatory function, a timed walk test like the 10 m Walk test in combination with the Walking Index for SCI II is strongly recommended. Early rehabilitation, defined as within 30 days of injury, improves outcome and recovery for spinal cord trauma patients. © 2010, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Cesqui B.,Laboratory of Neuromotor Physiology | van De Langenberg R.,Laboratory of Neuromotor Physiology | van De Langenberg R.,Institute of Human Movement science and Sport | Lacquaniti F.,Laboratory of Neuromotor Physiology | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Vision | Year: 2013

Investigation of eye movement strategies often requires the measurement of gaze orientation without restraining the head. However, most commercial eye-trackers have low tolerance for head movements. Here we present a novel geometry-based method to estimate gaze orientation in space in unrestricted head conditions. The method combines the measurement of eye-in-head orientation-provided by a head-mounted video-based eye-tracker-and head-in-space position and orientation-provided by a motion capture system. The method does not rely on specific assumptions on the configuration of the eye-tracker camera with respect to the eye and uses a central projection to estimate the pupil position from the camera image, thus improving upon previously proposed geometry-based procedures. The geometrical parameters for the mapping between pupil image and gaze orientation are derived with a calibration procedure based on nonlinear constrained optimization. Additionally, the method includes a procedure to correct for possible slippages of the tracker helmet based on a geometricalrepresentation of the pupil-to-gaze mapping. We tested and validated our method on seven subjects in the context of a onehanded catching experiment. We obtained accuracy better than 0.88 and precision better than 0.5° in the measurement of gaze orientation. Our method can be used with any video-based eye-tracking system to investigate eye movement strategies in a broad range of naturalistic experimental scenarios. © 2013 ARVO.

Niedermann R.,Empa - Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology | Rossi R.M.,Institute of Human Movement science and Sport
Textile Research Journal | Year: 2012

The aim of the current study was to investigate if human subjects can distinguish five different drying states of three different fabrics. We defined five time-points (drying states) for each fabric with an in-house developed infrared test, as well as gravimetrically. This test records the surface temperature of wetted fabrics with an infrared camera during the drying process. In addition, the weight course during drying was recorded. The subjects evaluated fabrics with different wetting and wicking behaviours in a perception questionnaire. They answered questions about thermal sensation, thermal comfort, pain sensation and wetness perception. In conclusion, the human subjects could not differentiate the drying states of the fabrics as long as they contained water. Only the last drying state (100% dry, as measured with the infrared test) was distinguishable from the other four. However, the dry time-point of a fabric measured with the gravimetric method did not coincide with the drying time measured with the infrared test or perceived by human subjects. © The Author(s) 2012.

Elliott V.,University of Montreal | De Bruin E.D.,Institute of Human Movement science and Sport | Dumoulin C.,University of Montreal
Neurourology and Urodynamics | Year: 2015

Background Motivated patients are more likely to adhere to treatment resulting in better outcomes. Virtual reality rehabilitation (VRR) is a treatment approach that includes video gaming to enhance motivation and functional training. Aims The study objectives were (1) to evaluate the feasibility of using a combination of pelvic floor muscles (PFM) exercises and VRR (PFM/VRR) to treat mixed urinary incontinence (MUI) in older women, (2) to evaluate the effectiveness of the PFM/VRR program on MUI symptoms, quality of life (QoL), and (3) gather quantitative information regarding patient satisfaction with this new combined training program. Methods Women 65 years and older with at least 2 weekly episodes of MUI were recruited. Participants were evaluated two times before and one time after a 12-week PFM/VRR training program. Feasibility was defined as the participants' rate of participation in and completion of both the PFM/VRR training program and the home exercise. Effectiveness was evaluated through a bladder diary, pad test, symptom and QoL questionnaire, and participant's satisfaction through a questionnaire. Results Twenty-four women (70.5-±-3.6 years) participated. The participants complied with the study demands in terms of attendance at the weekly treatment sessions (91%), adherence to home exercise (92%) and completion of the three evaluations (96%). Post-intervention, the frequency and quantity of urine leakage decreased and patient-reported symptoms and QoL improved significantly. Most participants were very satisfied with treatment (91%). Conclusion A combined PFM/VRR program is an acceptable, efficient, and satisfying functional treatment for older women with MUI and should be explore through further RCTs. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Wirth B.,Institute of Human Movement science and Sport | Hauser F.,Institute of Human Movement science and Sport | Mueller R.,Institute of Human Movement science and Sport
Footwear Science | Year: 2011

Purpose: Most studies on barefoot and shod walking have so far focused on leg muscle activity. However, footwear might also have an impact on the back and neck. The aim of the present study was to compare back and neck muscle activity as well as kinematic gait parameters during barefoot walking, conventional shod walking and walking in flexible shoes, commercially designed with the intention to imitate barefoot walking.Methods: Thirty healthy subjects (16 male and 14 female, mean age 31.4 ± 12.8 years) walked at self-selected speed over an instrumented walkway mat, either barefoot, with their own casual shoes or with these flexible shoes. Muscle activity was measured by EMG from the lumbar iliocostalis muscle, the lumbar longissimus muscle, the lumbar multifidi muscles, the trapezius muscle (pars descendens), the neck extensor muscles and the sternocleidomastoideus muscle.Results: The results indicated that back and neck muscle activity was slightly lower when wearing conventional footwear as opposed to walking barefoot or in the flexible shoe. Both the conventional and the flexible shoe, in contrast, significantly altered the kinematic gait parameters.Conclusions: Back and neck muscle activity was slightly influenced by footwear. The relevance of these findings should be investigated in the long term by longitudinal studies with healthy subjects as well as with patients suffering from lower back and neck pain. © 2011 Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

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