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Nalini A.,National Institute of Mental Health and Neuro Sciences | Gourie-Devi M.,Institute of Human Behaviour and Allied science | Thennarasu K.,National Institute of Mental Health and Neuro Sciences | Ramalingaiah A.H.,Interventional Imaging
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Degeneration | Year: 2014

Our objective was to study the clinical characteristics and natural history of monomelic amyotrophy (MMA). We used a retrospective study of 279 patients diagnosed to have either upper (Hirayama disease) or lower limb MMA. Results showed that brachial MMA (BMMA) occurred in 224 patients (male:female, 9:1). Mean age of onset was 19.5 ± 4.18 years. Progression occurred over less than five years in the majority (95.9%) of patients. Duration at the last follow-up was: up to five years in 61.4%, 5-10 in 21.3%, 10-15 in 7.2%, > 15 years in 10.1%. MRI showed asymmetrical lower cervical cord atrophy in 44.6% of patients. Crural MMA (CMMA) occurred in 55 patients (male:female, 13:1). Mean age of onset was 21.38 ± 5.3 years. Similar to BMMA, most cases (65.5%) had onset between 15 and 25 years of age. Total duration of illness at the last follow-up was up to five years in 52.7%, 10 and beyond in 47.3%. In conclusion, a large cohort of patients with monomelic amyotrophy seen over 35 years (1976-2010) is described. Study data support the clinical findings and its natural history with long term follow-up, and the findings emphasize that monomelic amyotrophy is a 'benign' condition with a self-limiting course. © 2014 Informa Healthcare.

Gourie-Devi M.,Institute of Human Behaviour and Allied science
Neurology India | Year: 2010

Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is a serious meningitic infection commonly found to occur in the developing countries endemic to tuberculosis. Based on the clinical features alone, the diagnosis of TBM can neither be made nor excluded with certainty. Unfortunately there is still no single diagnostic method that is both sufficiently rapid and sensitive. Most factors found to correlate with poor outcome can be directly traced to the stage of the disease at the time of diagnosis. The only way to reduce the mortality and morbidity is by early diagnosis and timely recognition of complications and institution of the appropriate treatment strategies.

Dung Dung A.A.,Institute of Human Behaviour and Allied science | Panda A.K.,BLK Super Speciality Hospital
BMJ Case Reports | Year: 2014

On the basis of evidence from clinical trials, contraindications to the use of interferon (INF) are pregnancy, epilepsy and depression. Management of multiple sclerosis during pregnancy is a difficult issue because of pregnancy-related complications and fear of congenital anomalies due to exposure to diseasemodifying therapy. In different series, INF therapy was withdrawn before or after variable periods of exposure. This case illustrates a 26-year-old woman diagnosed with relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis who was treated with a weekly regimen of intramuscular INF-β 1a (Avonex). She had received this treatment throughout her pregnancy without any further exacerbations of symptoms or any untoward pregnancy-related complications. In contrast to different series, our patient had the longest exposure to INF-β during pregnancy. Copyright 2014 BMJ Publishing Group. All rights reserved.

Pandey S.,Institute of Human Behaviour and Allied science
Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine | Year: 2011

Background: Tabes dorsalis is a late manifestation of untreated syphilis that is characterized by ataxia, lancinating pains, and urinary incontinence. A form of tertiary syphilis or neurosyphilis, it is the result of slow, progressive degeneration of the nerve cells in the spinal cord. Method: Case report. Findings: A 39-year-old man presented with tingling paresthesia in the lower limbs, difficulty in walking, and loss of vision. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the dorsal spine showed intramedullary hyperintensity and cord atrophy, similar to changes seen in subacute combined degeneration. MRI features of tabes dorsalis have not been described previously to the best of our knowledge. Conclusion: MRI findings in this patient with tabes dorsalis were similar to those seen in subacute combined degeneration, which is characterized predominantly by cord atrophy and intramedullary hyperintensities. © The Academy of Spinal Cord Injury Professionals, Inc. 2011.

Agarwal R.,Institute of Human Behaviour and Allied science
Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry | Year: 2013

Laboratories have a major impact on patient safety as 80-90 % of all the diagnosis are made on the basis of laboratory tests. Laboratory errors have a reported frequency of 0.012-0.6 % of all test results. Patient safety is a managerial issue which can be enhanced by implementing active system to identify and monitor quality failures. This can be facilitated by reactive method which includes incident reporting followed by root cause analysis. This leads to identification and correction of weaknesses in policies and procedures in the system. Another way is proactive method like Failure Mode and Effect Analysis. In this focus is on entire examination process, anticipating major adverse events and pre-emptively prevent them from occurring. It is used for prospective risk analysis of high-risk processes to reduce the chance of errors in the laboratory and other patient care areas. © 2013 Association of Clinical Biochemists of India.

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