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Daulatabad D.,University of Delhi | Singal A.,University of Delhi | Grover C.,University of Delhi | Chhillar N.,Institute of Human Behavior and Allied science
Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology | Year: 2016

Background: Premature canities is a common yet incompletely understood dermatological entity with scarce demographic and clinical data. Aim: Evaluation of the demographic and clinical profile of cases with premature canities and to look for systemic associations. Methods: Fifty two self-reported cases of premature canities (onset before 20 years of age) and an equal number of healthy controls were recruited from the outpatient department of the Department of Dermatology, Guru Teg Bahadur Hospital Delhi, India from November 2011 to March 2013. A detailed history including onset, duration and pattern of involvement, a family history with pedigree charting and scalp examination were recorded on a predesigned proforma. A history of atopy was looked for in all study subjects and they were screened for thyroid disorder and diabetes. Results: The mean age of cases and controls was comparable. The mean age of onset of graying was 11.6 ± 3.6 years. The mean duration at the time of presentation was 39.8 ± 37.2 months. The frontal region was the earliest affected area in 25 (48.1%) cases. Positive family history of premature canities was reported in 39 (75%) cases with an equal prevalence on paternal and maternal sides. More than half of the cases, 29 (55.8%) reported having a first degree relative affected by premature canities, 13 (25%) had a second degree and 20 (38.5%) had a third degree relative affected. Atopy was found to be strongly associated with premature canities with an odds ratio of 3.8. No association with thyroid abnormality or diabetes mellitus was seen. Limitation: The study suffered from the limitation of a small sample size. Conclusion: It was observed that the process of graying mostly starts in the frontal region. It was also found to be associated with a strong family history and atopic predisposition. Larger studies are recommended to arrive at a definite conclusion. © 2016 Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology, and Leprology.

Lakshmy R.,All India Institute of Medical Sciences | Mathur P.,Indian Council of Medical Research | Gupta R.,All India Institute of Medical Sciences | Shah B.,Indian Council of Medical Research | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Lipidology | Year: 2012

Background: Dried blood may be a convenient method of sample collection in epidemiological studies; however, the method needs evaluation in a field settings. In the present study, feasibility of using dried blood for measurement of cholesterol and triglycerides was evaluated in multicenter surveillance study for noncommunicable disease (NCD). Methods: Samples were collected in a cross-sectional study for NCD risk factor surveillance conducted in six centers in India. For every tenth subject recruited, a blood sample was also collected on filter paper. These 10% serum samples and dried blood spots were analyzed for cholesterol and triglycerides. Results: The mean coefficient of variation (CV) for cholesterol was less than 10% between dried blood and serum in five of the six participating centers. Only one center showed a high CV of 14%. Similarly, the mean bias was less than 10% in five centers. The intraclass correlation between cholesterol values in dried blood and serum were greater than 0.638 in all centers, which suggests a good homogeneity of results. The mean CV for triglycerides ranged from 0.36% to 17.97%. The intraclass correlation between triglyceride values in dried blood and serum ranged from 0.756 to 0.880 in the six centers. Conclusion: In conclusion, dried blood would be a good method for collection of blood for measurement of cholesterol and triglycerides for population health surveys. However, the benefits of blood spot analysis should be weighed against potential sources of errors attributable to sampling and other factors, such as temperature and humidity, in a country like India. © 2012 National Lipid Association. All rights reserved.

Malhotra M.,Maulana Azad Medical College | Kumar D.,Institute of Human Behavior and Allied science | Verma R.,All India Institute of Medical Sciences
Psychiatry Research | Year: 2015

The process of child's mental development depends heavily on the social interrelationship between the mother and her child. Schizophrenia in mothers potentially disrupts mother-infant relationship and adaptation to motherhood. Literature is limited on evaluating the emotional and behavioral problems of children of mother having schizophrenia with nearly none from the Indian subcontinent. The aim of the current study was to examine the effect of psychosocial environment in children of females with schizophrenia. Thirty children of mothers suffering with schizophrenia were evaluated with Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview for children and adolescents. The psychosocial environment was assessed using Parent Interview Schedule. Control group of 30 children were evaluated in the same way as the cases. The children of female patients with schizophrenia were found to score significantly higher on internalizing and externalizing behavioral problems on CBCL as compared to control group, along with significant differences in the psychosocial environment between the groups. We conclude that there is a need for screening and evaluation of children of mothers diagnosed with schizophrenia, for identifying and managing possible mental and behavioral problems in them, and to assess the psychosocial environment and provide interventions for issues related to it. © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

Chhillar N.,Institute of Human Behavior and Allied science
Pediatric Neurology | Year: 2015

Abstract Objective We determined the effects of carbamazepine and valproic acid on the serum lipids and apolipoprotein A and B in epileptic children on long-term monotherapy and 3 months after drug discontinuation. Method Thirty-three epileptic children (17 boys, 16 girls, mean age 9.79 ± 2.5 years) were evaluated for serum lipids and lipoprotein results at the initiation of antiepileptic drug tapering and 3 months after cessation of antiepileptic therapy. Results In the carbamazepine group (n = 13), there was no significant difference in the lipid profile at the end of therapy or at 3 months after the discontinuation, whereas in the valproate group (n = 20), triglycerides and apoprotein B and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol increased significantly 3 months after discontinuation. The ratios of total cholesterol:high-density lipoprotein improved but low-density lipoprotein:high-density lipoprotein and apolipoprotein:apolipoprotein remained unchanged. Conclusion Because these ratios are better predictor of atherosclerosis risk than the absolute values, the overall risk is not increased by the long-term use of carbamazepine and valproate. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.

Agarwal R.,Institute of Human Behavior and Allied science
Laboratory Medicine | Year: 2014

Laboratory error is defined as any defect from ordering tests to reporting and interpretation of results. Laboratory errors have a reported frequency of 0.012-0.6% of all test results which in turn has huge impact on diagnosis and patient management as 60-70% of all diagnosis are made on the basis of laboratory tests. Total testing process in the laboratory is a cyclical process divided into three phases: preanalytical, analytical and postanalytical. First, preanalytical phase in which requirement for a test is determined, the test is ordered and the patient is identified. It is followed by specimen collection and transport to the laboratory. The specimen is prepared and tested in the analytical phase. During the postanalytical phase, the results are reported to the individual who ordered the test and any action or intervention is undertaken. Initially, the policies and procedures developed by the laboratory were more concerned on analytical phase to reduce errors during laboratory testing and emphasis was in ensuring proper calibration and testing. The last few decades have seen a significant decrease in the rates of analytical errors in clinical laboratories. Currently, available evidences demonstrate that the pre- and postanalytical steps are more error prone.

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