Chhillar N.,Institute of Human Behavior and Allied science
Pediatric Neurology | Year: 2015
Abstract Objective We determined the effects of carbamazepine and valproic acid on the serum lipids and apolipoprotein A and B in epileptic children on long-term monotherapy and 3 months after drug discontinuation. Method Thirty-three epileptic children (17 boys, 16 girls, mean age 9.79 ± 2.5 years) were evaluated for serum lipids and lipoprotein results at the initiation of antiepileptic drug tapering and 3 months after cessation of antiepileptic therapy. Results In the carbamazepine group (n = 13), there was no significant difference in the lipid profile at the end of therapy or at 3 months after the discontinuation, whereas in the valproate group (n = 20), triglycerides and apoprotein B and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol increased significantly 3 months after discontinuation. The ratios of total cholesterol:high-density lipoprotein improved but low-density lipoprotein:high-density lipoprotein and apolipoprotein:apolipoprotein remained unchanged. Conclusion Because these ratios are better predictor of atherosclerosis risk than the absolute values, the overall risk is not increased by the long-term use of carbamazepine and valproate. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.
Agarwal R.,Institute of Human Behavior and Allied science
Laboratory Medicine | Year: 2014
Laboratory error is defined as any defect from ordering tests to reporting and interpretation of results. Laboratory errors have a reported frequency of 0.012-0.6% of all test results which in turn has huge impact on diagnosis and patient management as 60-70% of all diagnosis are made on the basis of laboratory tests. Total testing process in the laboratory is a cyclical process divided into three phases: preanalytical, analytical and postanalytical. First, preanalytical phase in which requirement for a test is determined, the test is ordered and the patient is identified. It is followed by specimen collection and transport to the laboratory. The specimen is prepared and tested in the analytical phase. During the postanalytical phase, the results are reported to the individual who ordered the test and any action or intervention is undertaken. Initially, the policies and procedures developed by the laboratory were more concerned on analytical phase to reduce errors during laboratory testing and emphasis was in ensuring proper calibration and testing. The last few decades have seen a significant decrease in the rates of analytical errors in clinical laboratories. Currently, available evidences demonstrate that the pre- and postanalytical steps are more error prone.
Malhotra M.,G B Pant Hospital |
Kumar D.,Institute of Human Behavior and Allied science |
Verma R.,All India Institute of Medical Sciences
Psychiatry Research | Year: 2015
The process of child's mental development depends heavily on the social interrelationship between the mother and her child. Schizophrenia in mothers potentially disrupts mother-infant relationship and adaptation to motherhood. Literature is limited on evaluating the emotional and behavioral problems of children of mother having schizophrenia with nearly none from the Indian subcontinent. The aim of the current study was to examine the effect of psychosocial environment in children of females with schizophrenia. Thirty children of mothers suffering with schizophrenia were evaluated with Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview for children and adolescents. The psychosocial environment was assessed using Parent Interview Schedule. Control group of 30 children were evaluated in the same way as the cases. The children of female patients with schizophrenia were found to score significantly higher on internalizing and externalizing behavioral problems on CBCL as compared to control group, along with significant differences in the psychosocial environment between the groups. We conclude that there is a need for screening and evaluation of children of mothers diagnosed with schizophrenia, for identifying and managing possible mental and behavioral problems in them, and to assess the psychosocial environment and provide interventions for issues related to it. © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Behari M.,All India Institute of Medical Sciences |
Pardasani V.,Institute of Human Behavior and Allied science
Parkinsonism and Related Disorders | Year: 2010
Wilson's disease is a rare autosomal recessive disorder of copper transport due to mutations in the ATP7B gene, responsible for transport of copper into bile from hepatocytes and its incorporation into apoceruloplasmin to form ceruloplasmin resulting in excessive accumulation of copper in the liver and extrahepatic tissues. Clinical features of WD result from toxic accumulation of copper in liver, brain and kidney. Early diagnosis is mandatory to initiate early treatment to prevent morbidity and mortality. More than 400 mutations have been reported, some of which are rather characteristic of geographical regions and ethnic population. Genetic testing is not useful as a routine procedure, but has its role in at risk individuals such as siblings and children of probands and in individuals with suggestive symptoms but where other tests are contradictory. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.
Gourie-Devi M.,Institute of Human Behavior and Allied science |
Singh V.,Institute of Human Behavior and Allied science |
Bala K.,Institute of Human Behavior and Allied science
Neurology Asia | Year: 2010
Stigmatized psychosocial perception poses a serious challenge and source of discrimination which impedes epilepsy patients from attaining a satisfactory quality of life. The present study was aimed to obtain information on knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of epilepsy patients in Delhi and compare with the published data from India. We included 120 people with epilepsy (PWE) attending the Neurology outpatient services of the Institute of Human Behavior and Allied Sciences (IHBAS), Delhi. Demographic details and responses to a questionnaire assessing the knowledge, attitude and practices were recorded. Although majority of the patients belonged to low socioeconomic strata, the literacy rate was reasonably high (70%). A large majority (94%) of PWE had heard about epilepsy and 91% knew that epilepsy can be treated with modern drugs. Positive attitude was observed with respect to allowing a child with epilepsy to study (80%), not objecting children to play with a child with epilepsy (95%), marriage (89%) and having children (92%). Negative attitude was reflected in the belief that epilepsy is due to supernatural powers (16%) and sins committed by patient or ancestors (21%). Analysis of Indian data revealed regional differences in KAP which could be attributed to local factors, such as literacy, awareness about epilepsy, and practice of different systems of medicine. Some of the differences can also be attributed to category of study population whether it included patients or non epilepsy individuals, since the former are likely to have less negative attitudes than the public. There is a need to create awareness about epilepsy on a nation-wide basis to dispel the misconceptions and stigma through effective and robust programs with the aim to lessen the disease burden.
Jain M.K.,Institute of Human Behavior and Allied science |
Tripathi C.B.,Institute of Human Behavior and Allied science
Journal of Anaesthesiology Clinical Pharmacology | Year: 2011
Background: Inflation and assessment of the endotracheal tube cuff pressure is often not appreciated as a critical aspect of endotracheal intubation. Appropriate endotracheal tube cuff pressure, endotracheal intubation seals the airway to prevent aspiration and provides for positive-pressure ventilation without air leak. Materials and Methods: Correlations between manual methods of assessing the pressure by an experienced anesthesiologists and assessment with maintenance of the pressure within the normal range by the automated pressure controller device were studied in 100 patients divided into two groups. In Group M, endotracheal tube cuff was inflated manually by a trained anesthesiologist and checked for its pressure hourly by cuff pressure monitor till the end of surgery. In Group C, endotracheal tube cuff was inflated by automated cuff pressure controller and pressure was maintained at 25-cm H2O throughout the surgeries. Repeated measure ANOVA was applied. Results: Repeated measure ANOVA results showed that average of endotracheal tube cuff pressure of 50 patients taken at seven different points is significantly different (F-value: 171.102, P-value: 0.000). Bonferroni correction test shows that average of endotracheal tube cuff pressure in all six groups are significantly different from constant group (P = 0.000). No case of laryngomalacia, tracheomalacia, tracheal stenosis, tracheoesophageal fistula or aspiration pneumonitis was observed. Conclusions: Endotracheal tube cuff pressure was significantly high when endotracheal tube cuff was inflated manually. The known complications of high endotracheal tube cuff pressure can be avoided if the cuff pressure controller device is used and manual methods cannot be relied upon for keeping the pressure within the recommended levels.
Kar S.,University of Lucknow |
Choudhury A.,Institute of Human Behavior and Allied science |
Singh A.,Institute of Human Behavior and Allied science
Journal of Human Reproductive Sciences | Year: 2015
Adolescence, derived from the Latin word "adolescere" meaning "to grow up" is a critical developmental period. During adolescence, major biological as well as psychological developments take place. Development of sexuality is an important bio-psycho-social development, which takes an adult shape during this period. During adolescence, an individuals thought, perception as well as response gets colored sexually. Puberty is an important landmark of sexuality development that occurs in the adolescence. The myriad of changes that occurs in adolescents puts them under enormous stress, which may have adverse physical, as well as psychological consequences. Understanding adolescent sexuality has important clinical, legal, social, cultural, as well as educational implications. © 2015 Journal of Human Reproductive Sciences.
PubMed | PMCH and Institute of Human Behavior and Allied science
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Asian spine journal | Year: 2016
Prospective clinical study.To observe the usefulness of anterior cervical osteophytes as intrinsic markers for spinal level localization (SLL) during sub-axial cervical spinal surgery via the anterior approach.Various landmarks, such as the mandibular angle, hyoid bone, thyroid cartilage, first cricoid ring, and C6 carotid tubercle, are used for gross cervical SLL; however, none are used during cervical spinal surgery via the anterior approach. We present our preliminary assessment of SLL over anterior vertebral surfaces (i.e., intrinsic markers) in 48 consecutive cases of anterior cervical spinal surgeries for the disc-osteophyte complex (DOC) in degenerative diseases and granulation or tumor tissue associated with infectious or neoplastic diseases, respectively, at an ill-equipped center.This prospective study on patients undergoing anterior cervical surgery for various sub-axial cervical spinal pathologies aimed to evaluate the feasibility and accuracy of SLL via intraoperative palpation of disease-related morphological changes on anterior vertebral surfaces visible on preoperative midline sagittal T1/2-weighted magnetic resonance images.During a 3-year period, 48 patients (38 males,10 females; average age, 43.58 years) who underwent surgery via the anterior approach for various sub-axial cervical spinal pathologies, including degenerative disease (n= 42), tubercular infection (Potts disease; n=3), traumatic prolapsed disc (n=2), and a metastatic lesion from thyroid carcinoma (n=1), comprised the study group. Intrinsic marker palpation yielded accurate SLL in 79% of patients (n=38). Among those with degenerative diseases (n=42), intrinsic marker palpation yielded accurate SLL in 76% of patients (n=32).Intrinsic marker palpation is an attractive potential adjunct for SLL during cervical spinal surgeries via the anterior approach in well-selected patients at ill-equipped centers (e.g., those found in developing countries). This technique may prove helpful when radiographic visualization is occasionally inadequate.
PubMed | Indian Spinal Injuries Center, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, National Institute of Mental Health and Neuro Sciences, Government of India and 6 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology | Year: 2016
Neurologists in their clinical practice are faced with inquiries about the suitability of stem cell approaches by patients with a variety of acute and chronic (namely neurodegenerative) disorders. The challenge is to provide these patients with accurate information about the scope of stem cell use as well as at the same time, empowering patients with the capacity to make an autonomous decision regarding the use of stem cells.The Indian Academy of Neurology commissioned an Expert Group Meeting to formulate an advisory to practicing neurologists to counsel patients seeking information and advice about stem cell approaches.In the course of such counselling, it should be emphasized that the information provided by many lay websites might be unsubstantiated. Besides, standard recommendations for the stem cell research, in particular, the application of several layers of oversight should be strictly adhered in order to ensure safety and ethical use of stem cells in neurological disorders.
PubMed | Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences and Institute of Human Behavior and Allied science
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Human & experimental toxicology | Year: 2016
Researchers have been evaluating several biodosimetric/screening approaches to assess acute radiation injury, related to mass causality. Keeping in mind this background, we hypothesized that effect of whole-body irradiation in single fraction in graded doses can affect the secretion of various salivary components that could be used as acute radiation injury/toxicity marker, which can be used in screening of large population at the time of nuclear accidents/disaster. Thirty Sprague Dawley rats treated with whole-body cobalt-60 gamma irradiation of dose 1-5 Gy (dose rate: 0.95 Gy/min) were included in this study. Whole mixed saliva was collected from all animals before and after radiation up to 72 h postradiation. Saliva was analyzed for electrolytes, total protein, urea, and amylase. Intragroup comparison of salivary parameters at different radiation doses showed significant differences. Potassium was significantly increased as the dose increased from 1 Gy to 5 Gy (p < 0.01) with effect size of difference (r > 0.5). Sodium was significantly altered after 3-5 Gy (p < 0.01, r > 0.5), except 1 and 2 Gy, whereas changes in sodium level were nonsignificant (p > 0.5). Urea, total protein, and amylase levels were also significantly increased as the radiation dose increased (p < 0.01) with large effect size of difference (r > 0.5). This study suggests that salivary parameters were sensitive toward radiation even at low radiation dose which can be used as a predictor of radiation injury.