Institute Of Home Economics

Delhi, India

Institute Of Home Economics

Delhi, India
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Arora B.,The Northcap University | Tandon R.,University of Delhi | Attri P.,Kyushu University | Bhatia R.,Institute of Home Economics
Current Protein and Peptide Science | Year: 2017

Background: Chemical crosslinking refers to intermolecular or intramolecular joining of two or more molecules by a covalent bond. The reagents that are used for the purpose are referred to as ‘crosslinking reagents’ or ‘crosslinkers’. Based on factors like reactivity and spacer length these are classified into different types, each having its own specific function and application. In recent times, chemical crosslinking has emerged as an efficient tool for the study of biomolecules like proteins. It finds its application in various studies including the attachment of proteins to a solid support for the study of membrane receptors, protein-protein complexes, protein-DNA complexes, and others. When coupled with techniques like mass spectroscopy, it has been used not only for the determination of three dimensional structures of proteins but also for the study of protein-protein interactions and determination of interesting sites. This combination of mass spectrometry techniques and bioinformatics, added yet another dimension to our present day understanding of protein chemistry. Thus, chemical crosslinking has multitude uses that it can be put to. Methods: We undertook a systematic search of bibliographic databases and search engine such as Google Scholar, Scifinder, Scopus, Mendeley etc for review of research literature. We excluded research paper which only reported synthesis of crosslinker molecules and did not involve any mass spectrometry studies. Results: Sixty-four papers were included in the review. The majority of references were taken from last ten years as there has been an immense progress in this area in the recent years. Eleven classical papers in this field were included which talk about basic of this methodology. Thirty-two papers discussed about various types of organic groups used for designing chemical cross-linkers and various methodologies which were used to enhance the crosslinking efficiency. These papers also highlight various strategies used to enhance detection of cross-linked proteins and various computer software used to detect cross-linking sites from mass data. Twenty-one papers showed the proof concept application of this methodology to detect protein crosslinking in-vivo and in-vitro. Conclusion: The findings of this review confirm the importance chemical crosslinking combined with mass spectroscopy as a low cost alternative to understand protein-protein interaction. The information generated by this methodology can help in better understating of various diseases and for the development of better drugs for them. © 2017 Bentham Science Publishers.

Kumar S.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Parihar S.S.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Singh M.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Jat S.L.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | And 4 more authors.
Indian Journal of Agronomy | Year: 2016

A field experiment was carried out during 2011–12 and 2012–13 at the research farm of ICAR-Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, India, in sandy-loam soil, to study effect of conservation agriculture practices and irrigation scheduling on productivity and water-use efficiency of maize (Zea mays L.)–wheat [Triticum aestivum (L.) emend. Fiori & Paol.] cropping system. The grain yield of maize was significantly higher under raised bed (RB) planting to the tune of 13.3% over conventional tillage (CT) during both the years. The increase in irrigation water-use efficiency (IWUE) of maize was 40–46% and 10–16% higher with RB and zero tillage (ZT) over CT respectively. Residue retention was more beneficial under RB than residue incorporation in CT. In wheat, 6–13% higher grain yield under RB was found in comparison to CT. The increase in IWUE of wheat was found higher in RB (32–40%) compared to ZT (8–12%) over CT, as the grain yield was more with per unit of water applied under RB. The highest system productivity was recorded under RB (9.92 and 9.80 t/ha) followed by ZT (9.08 and 9.04 t/ ha) and the minimum under CT (8.63 and 8.84 t/ha during 2011–12 and 2012–13 respectively) during both the years. The yield of crops and system productivity improved owing to application of crop residue. The results also revealed that system productivity of maize–wheat cropping system was significantly influenced because of different irrigation scheduling during both the years. Adoption of RB with crop residue along with 40% available soil-moisture depletion (ASMD) can be recommended for improving resource-use efficiency and productivity of maize– wheat cropping system. © 2017, Indian Society of Agronomy. All rights reserved.

Misra A.,Fortis Flt Lt Rajan Dhall Hospital | Misra A.,Diabetes Foundation India | Sharma R.,Medicity | Gulati S.,Diabetes Foundation India | And 31 more authors.
Diabetes Technology and Therapeutics | Year: 2011

India is undergoing rapid nutritional transition, resulting in excess consumption of calories, saturated fats, trans fatty acids, simple sugars, salt and low intake of fiber. Such dietary transition and a sedentary lifestyle have led to an increase in obesity and diet-related non-communicable diseases (type 2 diabetes mellitus [T2DM], cardiovascular disease [CVD], etc.) predominantly in urban, but also in rural areas. In comparison with the previous guidelines, these consensus dietary guidelines include reduction in the intake of carbohydrates, preferential intake of complex carbohydrates and low glycemic index foods, higher intake of fiber, lower intake of saturated fats, optimal ratio of essential fatty acids, reduction in trans fatty acids, slightly higher protein intake, lower intake of salt, and restricted intake of sugar. While these guidelines are applicable to Asian Indians in any geographical setting, they are particularly applicable to those residing in urban and in semi-urban areas. Proper application of these guidelines will help curb the rising "epidemics" of obesity, the metabolic syndrome, hypertension, T2DM, and CVD in Asian Indians. © 2011 Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

Manzar M.D.,Jamia Millia Islamia University | Zannat W.,Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati | Kaur M.,Institute of Home Economics | Hussain M.E.,Jamia Millia Islamia University
International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health | Year: 2015

Purpose: Assessment of the influence of gender and increasing years at university on sleep health of students. Methods: Four hundred and eighteen students from different streams across years of undergraduate to postgraduate courses participated. Descriptive statistics, test of differences, and correlation were used. The sleep health data comprised of subjective evaluation using a questionnaire and personal interviews. Results: Overall, 43.1% had sleep problems, females were more affected (51.67% vs. 48.33% in males) but were early bed goers. The prevalence of circadian rhythm sleep disorder (11.6% vs. 9.5%) and delayed sleep phase syndrome (4.5% vs. 2.7%) was slightly higher in males. The daytime dysfunction and hypnotic use significantly differed in students of the same class among gender. Bedtime got significantly delayed along years [H(2)=29.769, p<0.001], and hypnotic use [H(2)=8.807, p=0.012] differed significantly among them. The moderate-very strong correlational statistics among sleep health elements was very similar across gender and years of university education. However, more pronounced influence of years of university education than gender was seen in the significant differences for correlated correlation among sleep health parameters. Conclusion: Gender and years of university education influence sleep among university students both separately and concomitantly. © 2015 by De Gruyter.

Ujjain S.K.,Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur | Ujjain S.K.,University of Delhi | Ahuja P.,University of Delhi | Bhatia R.,Institute of Home Economics | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology | Year: 2015

Various synthetic methods were employed on a single precursor to synthesize magnetic cobalt dithiocarbamate (Co(dtc-SB)) coordination polymer nanoparticles (MCP NPs) having different morphologies. When subjected to hydrothermal method, the precursor led to the formation of nanosheets (NSs) of MCP (100×80 nm), whereas the same precursor when set to slow diffusion precipitation, formed nanowires (NWs) with 30 nm diameter. Further, on micro-emulsion ultrasonication, uniform MCP nanocubes (NCs) ∼5 nm were obtained. MCP NPs are weakly ferromagnetic in nature with a narrow hysteresis loop opening. In addition, the magnetic properties of MCP NPs are shown to be highly dependent on size. Further, the antimicrobial activity of MCP NPs against various microbes was also shown to be highly size dependent. The biocompatible MCP NCs were found to have the lowest minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of 6.25 μg/ml against S. aureus and K. pneumoneae, which demonstrate that NPs are equally effective against both gram positive and gram negative bacteria. Copyright © 2015 American Scientific Publishers.

Ujjain S.K.,Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur | Bhatia R.,Institute Of Home Economics | Ahuja P.,University of Delhi | Attri P.,Kwangwoon University
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

We report the functionalization of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) via the 1,3-dipolar [3+2] cycloaddition of aromatic azides, which resulted in a detangled CNT as shown by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Carboxylic moieties (-COOH) on aromatic azide result in highly stable aqueous dispersion (max. conc. ∼ 10 mg/mL H2O), making the suitable for inkjet printing. Printed patterns on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) flexible substrate exhibit low sheet resistivity ∼65 Ω. cm, which is attributed to enhanced conductivity. Fabricated Supercapacitors (SC) assembled using these printed substrates exhibit good electrochemical performance in organic as well as aqueous electrolytes. High energy and power density (57.8 Wh/kg and 0.85 kW/kg) in 1M H2SO4 aqueous electrolyte demonstrate the excellent performance of the proposed supercapacitor. Capacitive retention varies from ∼85-94% with columbic efficiency ∼95% after 1000 charge/discharge cycles in different electrolytes, demonstrating the excellent potential of the device for futuristic power applications. Copyright © 2015 Ujjain et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Tripathi B.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Bhatia R.,Institute of Home Economics | Bhatia R.,University of Delhi | Pandey A.,University of Delhi | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Chemistry | Year: 2014

Antioxidant and nematicidal properties were evaluated for R. emodi extractives which are extracted by standardizing and adopting accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) method along with traditional Soxhlet extraction. The extracted material was separated using flash chromatography and the separation conditions and solvents were standardized for the extracted plant constituents. The purity was detected by using analytical reverse phase high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). LC-MS/MS detection in the direct infusion mode of the isolated, purified products afforded four anthraquinones, characterized by their infrared spectra (IR) and 1H spectra as chrysophanol, physcion, emodin, and aloe-emodin. Five antraquinone glucoside derivatives and piceatannol-3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside have also been detected from the extracted product. During in vitro evaluation the antioxidant potential of methanolic crude extract (CE1) was the highest, followed by ethyl acetate crude extract (CE2) and chloroform extract (CE3) in DPPH radical scavenging activity. The CE1 also demonstrated outstanding nematicidal activity as compared with other extracts, pure anthraquinones, and even positive control azadirachtin. The study conclusively demonstrated the antioxidant potential of R. emodi extracts and also its ability in extenuating the Meloidogyne incognita (root-knot nematode). The bioassay results can be extrapolated to actual field condition and clinical studies. © 2014 Brijesh Tripathi et al.

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