Institute of Himalayan Bioresource Technology
Institute of Himalayan Bioresource Technology
Kumari A.,Institute of Himalayan Bioresource Technology |
Yadav S.K.,Institute of Himalayan Bioresource Technology
Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery | Year: 2011
Introduction: Nanoparticles (NPs) are used extensively in drug delivery. They are administered through various routes in the host, and their uptake by the cellular environment has been observed in several pathways. After uptake, NPs interact with cells to different extents, depending on their size, shape, surface properties, ligands tagged to the surface and tumor architecture. Complete understanding of such cellular uptake mechanisms and interactions of NPs is important for their effective use in drug delivery. Areas covered: This article describes the various cellular pathways for NP uptake, and the factors affecting NP uptake and interactions with cells. Understanding these two important aspects will help in the future design of NPs for effective and targeted drug delivery. Expert opinion: Surface charge and ligands tagged on the surface of NPs play a critical role in their uptake and interaction with cells; so surface modifications of NPs can offer increased drug delivery effectiveness, for example, the coupling of ligands on the surface of NPs can increase cellular binding, and NPs in biological fluids can be coated with proteins and as such can exert biological effects. All of the factors affecting NP uptake need to be investigated thoroughly before interpreting any NP-cellular interactions. © 2011 Informa UK, Ltd.
Singh D.,Punjabi University |
Singh B.,Institute of Himalayan Bioresource Technology |
Goel R.K.,Punjabi University
Journal of Ethnopharmacology | Year: 2011
Ethnopharmacological relevance: Ficus religiosa L. (Moraceae) has been extensively used in traditional medicine for a wide range of ailments of the central nervous system, endocrine system, gastrointestinal tract, reproductive system, respiratory system and infectious disorders. Aim of the review: To comprehend the fragmented information available on the botany, traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of F. religiosa to explore its therapeutic potential and future research opportunities. Materials and methods: All the available information on F. religiosa was collected via electronic search (using Pubmed, SciFinder, Scirus, Google Scholar, Agricola and Web of Science) and a library search. Results: Ethnomedical uses of F. religiosa are recorded throughout South Asia, where it has been used for about 50 types of disorders. Phytochemical research had led to the isolation of phytosterols, amino acids, furanocoumarins, phenolic components, hydrocarbons, aliphatic alcohols, volatile components and few other classes of secondary metabolites from F. religiosa. Fresh plant materials, crude extracts and isolated components of F. religiosa showed a wide spectrum of in vitro and in vivo pharmacological activities like, antidiabetic, cognitive enhancer, wound healing, anticonvulsant, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antimicrobial, antiviral, hypolipidemic, antioxidant, immunomodulatory, antiasthmatic, parasympathetic modulatory, esterogenic, antitumor, antiulcer, antianxiety, antihelmintic, endotheilin receptor antagonistic, apoptosis inducer and hypotensive. Conclusions: F. religiosa emerged as a good source of traditional medicine for the treatment of asthma, diabetes, diarrhea, epilepsy, gastric problems, inflammatory disorders, infectious disorders and sexual disorders. Although many of the experimental studies validated its traditional medicinal uses, but employed uncharacterized crude extracts. Thus, it is difficult to reproduce the results and pinpoint the bioactive metabolite. Hence, there is a need of phytochemical standardization and bioactivity-guided identification of bioactive metabolites. The results of few pharmacological studies and bioactive metabolites already reported in F. religiosa warrant detailed investigation for its potential against cancer, cardiovascular disorders, neuroinflammatory disorders, neuropsychiatric disorders, oxidative stress related disorders and parasitic infections. The outcome of these studies will further expand the existing therapeutic potential of F. religiosa and provide a convincing support to its future clinical use in modern medicine. © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Bhatti S.,Institute of Himalayan Bioresource Technology |
Jha G.,Institute of Himalayan Bioresource Technology
Plant Cell Reports | Year: 2010
Apple (Malus domestica Borkh.), which is a widely cultivated, important economic fruit crop with nutritive and medicinal importance, has emerged as a model horticultural crop in this post-genomic era. Apple cultivation is heavily dependent on climatic condition and is susceptible to several diseases caused by fungi, bacteria, viruses, insects, etc. Extensive research work has been carried out to standardize tissue culture protocols and utilize them in apple improvement. We review the in vitro shoot multiplication, rooting, transformation and regeneration methodologies in apple and tabulate various such protocols for easy reference. The utility and limitation of transgenesis in apple improvement have also been summarized. The concepts of marker-free plants, use of non-antibiotic resistance selectable markers, and cisgenic and intragenic approaches are highlighted. Furthermore, the limitations, current trends and future prospects of tissue culture-mediated biotechnological interventions in apple improvement are discussed. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.
Bhattacharya A.,Institute of Himalayan Bioresource Technology |
Sood P.,Institute of Himalayan Bioresource Technology |
Citovsky V.,State University of New York at Stony Brook
Molecular Plant Pathology | Year: 2010
Phenolics are aromatic benzene ring compounds with one or more hydroxyl groups produced by plants mainly for protection against stress. The functions of phenolic compounds in plant physiology and interactions with biotic and abiotic environments are difficult to overestimate. Phenolics play important roles in plant development, particularly in lignin and pigment biosynthesis. They also provide structural integrity and scaffolding support to plants. Importantly, phenolic phytoalexins, secreted by wounded or otherwise perturbed plants, repel or kill many microorganisms, and some pathogens can counteract or nullify these defences or even subvert them to their own advantage. In this review, we discuss the roles of phenolics in the interactions of plants with Agrobacterium and Rhizobium. © 2010 The Authors.
Yadav S.C.,Institute of Himalayan Bioresource Technology |
Kumari A.,Institute of Himalayan Bioresource Technology |
Yadav R.,Institute of Himalayan Bioresource Technology
Peptides | Year: 2011
The targeted delivery of therapeutic peptide by nanocarriers systems requires the knowledge of interactions of nanomaterials with the biological environment, peptide release, and stability of therapeutic peptides. Therapeutic application of nanoencapsulated peptides are increasing exponentially and >1000 peptides in nanoencapsulated form are in different clinical/trial phase. This review covers current scenario of therapeutic protein and peptides encapsulation on polymer to metallic nanocarriers including methods of protein encapsulation, peptide bioconjugation on nanoparticles, stability enhancement of encapsulated proteins and its biomedical applications. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kasana R.C.,Institute of Himalayan Bioresource Technology |
Gulati A.,Institute of Himalayan Bioresource Technology
Journal of Basic Microbiology | Year: 2011
Cellulases are hydrolytic enzymes that catalyze total hydrolysis of cellulose into sugars. Cellulases are produced by various groups of microorganisms and animals; however, psychro-philes are the ideal candidates for the production of enzymes active at low temperature and stable under alkaline conditions, in the presence of oxidants and detergents, which are in large demand as laundry additives. The cellulases from psychrophiles also find application in environmental bioremediation, food industry and molecular biology. Research work on cellulase has been done over the last six decades, but there is no exclusive review available on the cellulases from psychrophiles. This review is an attempt to fill this gap by providing all the relevant information exclusively for cellulases from psychrophiles, with a focus on the present status of knowledge on their activity, molecular characteristics, gene cloning, statistical expe-rimental designs, crystal structure, and strategies for the improvement of psychrophilic cel-lulases. © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Vashisht S.,Institute of Himalayan Bioresource Technology |
Bagler G.,Institute of Himalayan Bioresource Technology
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012
Metastasis is one of the most enigmatic aspects of cancer pathogenesis and is a major cause of cancer-associated mortality. Secondary bone cancer (SBC) is a complex disease caused by metastasis of tumor cells from their primary site and is characterized by intricate interplay of molecular interactions. Identification of targets for multifactorial diseases such as SBC, the most frequent complication of breast and prostate cancers, is a challenge. Towards achieving our aim of identification of targets specific to SBC, we constructed a 'Cancer Genes Network', a representative protein interactome of cancer genes. Using graph theoretical methods, we obtained a set of key genes that are relevant for generic mechanisms of cancers and have a role in biological essentiality. We also compiled a curated dataset of 391 SBC genes from published literature which serves as a basis of ontological correlates of secondary bone cancer. Building on these results, we implement a strategy based on generic cancer genes, SBC genes and gene ontology enrichment method, to obtain a set of targets that are specific to bone metastasis. Through this study, we present an approach for probing one of the major complications in cancers, namely, metastasis. The results on genes that play generic roles in cancer phenotype, obtained by network analysis of 'Cancer Genes Network', have broader implications in understanding the role of molecular regulators in mechanisms of cancers. Specifically, our study provides a set of potential targets that are of ontological and regulatory relevance to secondary bone cancer. © 2012 Vashisht, Bagler.
Seth C.S.,Institute of Himalayan Bioresource Technology
Botanical Review | Year: 2012
This article deals with the advances and implication of phytoremediation technologies with emphasis on remediation of toxic heavy metals from contaminated soil. Most of the conventional remedial technologies are expensive and inhibit the soil fertility and cause negative impacts on various ecosystem services. However, phytoremediation is a cost effective and ecofriendly approach, which does not adversely affect soil properties and ecosystem services. In recent years, major progresses have been made in understanding the physiological mechanisms of metal uptake and transport in hyper accumulators. However, the molecular mechanisms of metal uptake, translocation, accumulation and detoxification in plants and their further implication in transgenic development for efficient phytoremediation are not well understood. In view of above, present review article brings together existing bits of information to create a new direction for future research, critical gap in knowledge and a new perspective on remediation of toxic pollutants. © 2011 The New York Botanical Garden.
Agnihotri V.K.,Institute of Himalayan Bioresource Technology
Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology | Year: 2014
Cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) are the most primitive prokaryotic photosynthetic organisms, that have survived and flourished on the planet for more than 3 billion years and produced the oxygen that enabled aerobic metabolism. Anabaena is a genus of filamentous cyanobacteria, known for its nitrogen fixing abilities and is one of cyanobacterial genera that produce toxins. Because of plasmid DNA, the nontoxic strain of Anabaena flos-aquae, transformed into a toxic strain that producing neuro-toxins. The major toxins those were produced by this species are anatoxin-a, homoanatoxin-a, and anatoxin-a(s). Presence of these toxins in the source of fresh water makes water toxic and every year so many reports on death of animals were documented. Several studies have been done over this toxic cyanobacterium and showed that under controlled environment this species is very useful for human being. However, presence of this alga in the water sources makes environment toxic. Several analytical methods were reported for the detection of these toxins. This review is be focused on the detailed literature survey on fresh water cyanobacterium, Anabaena flos-aquae, with respect to its importance and cure. © 2014 Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.
Shanmugam V.,Institute of Himalayan Bioresource Technology |
Kanoujia N.,Institute of Himalayan Bioresource Technology
Biological Control | Year: 2011
Two plant growth promoting rhizobacterial (PGPR) strains, GIBC-Jamog (Bacillus subtilis) and TEPF-Sungal (Burkholderia cepacia) and PGPR strain mixtures, S2BC-1 (B. subtilis)+GIBC-Jamog (B. subtilis) and S2BC-2 (Bacillus atrophaeus)+TEPF-Sungal (Burkholderia cepacia) which inhibited the mycelial growth of vascular wilt fungus Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici were selected for assessing vascular wilt control in tomato by localized and induced systemic resistance (ISR) experiments in the greenhouse. Seed bacterization and soil application of S2BC-1+GIBC-Jamog challenge-inoculated with F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici resulted in significantly lower incidence (54.9% and 53.8% reduction) relative to the non-bacterized pathogen control in localized and split-root experiments, respectively. In localized studies, the lower disease incidence coincided with increases in the plant vigor index and fresh weight of 44.1% and 183.4%, respectively, relative to the pathogen control. Analysis of root samples in localized and split-root experiments also indicated increased induction of chitinase (2.2- and 2.6-fold, respectively) and β-1,3-glucanase (1.4- and 1.1-fold, respectively). In native gel activity assay, S2BC-1+GIBC-Jamog with challenge-inoculation, expressed high intensity peroxidase isoforms in localized and ISR experiments. It is presumed that the induced chitinase, β-1,3-glucanase and peroxidase in localized and split-root experiments may be involved in the reduction of vascular wilt development in tomato. Reduced disease severity coupled with enhanced enzyme production elicited by S2BC-1+GIBC-Jamog in localized and split-root experiments indicate that its mode of action for vascular wilt suppression in tomato is through both direct biocontrol and ISR. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.