Bhatti S.,Institute of Himalayan Bioresource Technology |
Jha G.,Institute of Himalayan Bioresource Technology
Plant Cell Reports | Year: 2010
Apple (Malus domestica Borkh.), which is a widely cultivated, important economic fruit crop with nutritive and medicinal importance, has emerged as a model horticultural crop in this post-genomic era. Apple cultivation is heavily dependent on climatic condition and is susceptible to several diseases caused by fungi, bacteria, viruses, insects, etc. Extensive research work has been carried out to standardize tissue culture protocols and utilize them in apple improvement. We review the in vitro shoot multiplication, rooting, transformation and regeneration methodologies in apple and tabulate various such protocols for easy reference. The utility and limitation of transgenesis in apple improvement have also been summarized. The concepts of marker-free plants, use of non-antibiotic resistance selectable markers, and cisgenic and intragenic approaches are highlighted. Furthermore, the limitations, current trends and future prospects of tissue culture-mediated biotechnological interventions in apple improvement are discussed. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.
Bhattacharya A.,Institute of Himalayan Bioresource Technology |
Sood P.,Institute of Himalayan Bioresource Technology |
Citovsky V.,State University of New York at Stony Brook
Molecular Plant Pathology | Year: 2010
Phenolics are aromatic benzene ring compounds with one or more hydroxyl groups produced by plants mainly for protection against stress. The functions of phenolic compounds in plant physiology and interactions with biotic and abiotic environments are difficult to overestimate. Phenolics play important roles in plant development, particularly in lignin and pigment biosynthesis. They also provide structural integrity and scaffolding support to plants. Importantly, phenolic phytoalexins, secreted by wounded or otherwise perturbed plants, repel or kill many microorganisms, and some pathogens can counteract or nullify these defences or even subvert them to their own advantage. In this review, we discuss the roles of phenolics in the interactions of plants with Agrobacterium and Rhizobium. © 2010 The Authors.
Yadav S.C.,Institute of Himalayan Bioresource Technology |
Kumari A.,Institute of Himalayan Bioresource Technology |
Yadav R.,Institute of Himalayan Bioresource Technology
Peptides | Year: 2011
The targeted delivery of therapeutic peptide by nanocarriers systems requires the knowledge of interactions of nanomaterials with the biological environment, peptide release, and stability of therapeutic peptides. Therapeutic application of nanoencapsulated peptides are increasing exponentially and >1000 peptides in nanoencapsulated form are in different clinical/trial phase. This review covers current scenario of therapeutic protein and peptides encapsulation on polymer to metallic nanocarriers including methods of protein encapsulation, peptide bioconjugation on nanoparticles, stability enhancement of encapsulated proteins and its biomedical applications. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kasana R.C.,Institute of Himalayan Bioresource Technology |
Gulati A.,Institute of Himalayan Bioresource Technology
Journal of Basic Microbiology | Year: 2011
Cellulases are hydrolytic enzymes that catalyze total hydrolysis of cellulose into sugars. Cellulases are produced by various groups of microorganisms and animals; however, psychro-philes are the ideal candidates for the production of enzymes active at low temperature and stable under alkaline conditions, in the presence of oxidants and detergents, which are in large demand as laundry additives. The cellulases from psychrophiles also find application in environmental bioremediation, food industry and molecular biology. Research work on cellulase has been done over the last six decades, but there is no exclusive review available on the cellulases from psychrophiles. This review is an attempt to fill this gap by providing all the relevant information exclusively for cellulases from psychrophiles, with a focus on the present status of knowledge on their activity, molecular characteristics, gene cloning, statistical expe-rimental designs, crystal structure, and strategies for the improvement of psychrophilic cel-lulases. © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Vashisht S.,Institute of Himalayan Bioresource Technology |
Bagler G.,Institute of Himalayan Bioresource Technology
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012
Metastasis is one of the most enigmatic aspects of cancer pathogenesis and is a major cause of cancer-associated mortality. Secondary bone cancer (SBC) is a complex disease caused by metastasis of tumor cells from their primary site and is characterized by intricate interplay of molecular interactions. Identification of targets for multifactorial diseases such as SBC, the most frequent complication of breast and prostate cancers, is a challenge. Towards achieving our aim of identification of targets specific to SBC, we constructed a 'Cancer Genes Network', a representative protein interactome of cancer genes. Using graph theoretical methods, we obtained a set of key genes that are relevant for generic mechanisms of cancers and have a role in biological essentiality. We also compiled a curated dataset of 391 SBC genes from published literature which serves as a basis of ontological correlates of secondary bone cancer. Building on these results, we implement a strategy based on generic cancer genes, SBC genes and gene ontology enrichment method, to obtain a set of targets that are specific to bone metastasis. Through this study, we present an approach for probing one of the major complications in cancers, namely, metastasis. The results on genes that play generic roles in cancer phenotype, obtained by network analysis of 'Cancer Genes Network', have broader implications in understanding the role of molecular regulators in mechanisms of cancers. Specifically, our study provides a set of potential targets that are of ontological and regulatory relevance to secondary bone cancer. © 2012 Vashisht, Bagler.
Seth C.S.,Institute of Himalayan Bioresource Technology
Botanical Review | Year: 2012
This article deals with the advances and implication of phytoremediation technologies with emphasis on remediation of toxic heavy metals from contaminated soil. Most of the conventional remedial technologies are expensive and inhibit the soil fertility and cause negative impacts on various ecosystem services. However, phytoremediation is a cost effective and ecofriendly approach, which does not adversely affect soil properties and ecosystem services. In recent years, major progresses have been made in understanding the physiological mechanisms of metal uptake and transport in hyper accumulators. However, the molecular mechanisms of metal uptake, translocation, accumulation and detoxification in plants and their further implication in transgenic development for efficient phytoremediation are not well understood. In view of above, present review article brings together existing bits of information to create a new direction for future research, critical gap in knowledge and a new perspective on remediation of toxic pollutants. © 2011 The New York Botanical Garden.
Pathania S.,Institute of Himalayan Bioresource Technology |
Randhawa V.,Institute of Himalayan Bioresource Technology |
Bagler G.,Institute of Himalayan Bioresource Technology
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013
Aldose Reductase (AR) is implicated in the development of secondary complications of diabetes, providing an interesting target for therapeutic intervention. Extracts of Rauvolfia serpentina, a medicinal plant endemic to the Himalayan mountain range, have been known to be effective in alleviating diabetes and its complications. In this study, we aim to prospect for novel plant-derived inhibitors from R. serpentina and to understand structural basis of their interactions. An extensive library of R. serpentina molecules was compiled and computationally screened for inhibitory action against AR. The stability of complexes, with docked leads, was verified using molecular dynamics simulations. Two structurally distinct plant-derived leads were identified as inhibitors: indobine and indobinine. Further, using these two leads as templates, 16 more leads were identified through ligand-based screening of their structural analogs, from a small molecules database. Thus, we obtained plant-derived indole alkaloids, and their structural analogs, as potential AR inhibitors from a manually curated dataset of R. serpentina molecules. Indole alkaloids reported herein, as a novel structural class unreported hitherto, may provide better insights for designing potential AR inhibitors with improved efficacy and fewer side effects. © 2013 Pathania et al.
Agnihotri V.K.,Institute of Himalayan Bioresource Technology
Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology | Year: 2014
Cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) are the most primitive prokaryotic photosynthetic organisms, that have survived and flourished on the planet for more than 3 billion years and produced the oxygen that enabled aerobic metabolism. Anabaena is a genus of filamentous cyanobacteria, known for its nitrogen fixing abilities and is one of cyanobacterial genera that produce toxins. Because of plasmid DNA, the nontoxic strain of Anabaena flos-aquae, transformed into a toxic strain that producing neuro-toxins. The major toxins those were produced by this species are anatoxin-a, homoanatoxin-a, and anatoxin-a(s). Presence of these toxins in the source of fresh water makes water toxic and every year so many reports on death of animals were documented. Several studies have been done over this toxic cyanobacterium and showed that under controlled environment this species is very useful for human being. However, presence of this alga in the water sources makes environment toxic. Several analytical methods were reported for the detection of these toxins. This review is be focused on the detailed literature survey on fresh water cyanobacterium, Anabaena flos-aquae, with respect to its importance and cure. © 2014 Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.
Shivanna N.,Defence Food Research Laboratory |
Naika M.,Defence Food Research Laboratory |
Khanum F.,Defence Food Research Laboratory |
Kaul V.K.,Institute of Himalayan Bioresource Technology
Journal of Diabetes and its Complications | Year: 2013
Background: Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni has been used for the treatment of diabetes in, for example, Brazil, although a positive effect on antidiabetic and its complications has not been unequivocally demonstrated. This herb also has numerous therapeutic properties which have been proven safe and effective over hundreds of years. Streptozotocin is a potential source of oxidative stress that induces genotoxicity. Objective: We studied the effects of stevia leaves and its extracted polyphenols and fiber on streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. We hypothesize that supplementation of polyphenols extract from stevia to the diet causes a reduction in diabetes and its complications. Design/Methods: Eighty Wistar rats were randomly divided into 8 groups; a standard control diet was supplemented with either stevia whole leaves powder (4.0%) or polyphenols or fiber extracted from stevia separately and fed for one month. Streptozotocin (60 mg/kg body weight, i.p) was injected to the diabetic groups on the 31st day. Several indices were analyzed to assess the modulation of the streptozotocin induced oxidative stress, toxicity and blood glucose levels by stevia. Results: The results showed a reduction of blood glucose, ALT and AST, and increment of insulin level in the stevia whole leaves powder and extracted polyphenols fed rats compared to control diabetic group. Its feeding also reduced the MDA concentration in liver and improved its antioxidant status through antioxidant enzymes. Glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity were improved by their feeding. Streptozotocin was also found to induce kidney damage as evidenced by decreased glomerular filtration rate; this change was however alleviated in the stevia leaves and extracted polyphenol fed groups. Conclusion: The results suggested that stevia leaves do have a significant role in alleviating liver and kidney damage in the STZ-diabetic rats besides its hypoglycemic effect. It might be adequate to conclude that stevia leaves could protect rats against streptozotocin induced diabetes, reduce the risk of oxidative stress and ameliorate liver and kidney damage. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Shanmugam V.,Institute of Himalayan Bioresource Technology |
Kanoujia N.,Institute of Himalayan Bioresource Technology
Biological Control | Year: 2011
Two plant growth promoting rhizobacterial (PGPR) strains, GIBC-Jamog (Bacillus subtilis) and TEPF-Sungal (Burkholderia cepacia) and PGPR strain mixtures, S2BC-1 (B. subtilis)+GIBC-Jamog (B. subtilis) and S2BC-2 (Bacillus atrophaeus)+TEPF-Sungal (Burkholderia cepacia) which inhibited the mycelial growth of vascular wilt fungus Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici were selected for assessing vascular wilt control in tomato by localized and induced systemic resistance (ISR) experiments in the greenhouse. Seed bacterization and soil application of S2BC-1+GIBC-Jamog challenge-inoculated with F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici resulted in significantly lower incidence (54.9% and 53.8% reduction) relative to the non-bacterized pathogen control in localized and split-root experiments, respectively. In localized studies, the lower disease incidence coincided with increases in the plant vigor index and fresh weight of 44.1% and 183.4%, respectively, relative to the pathogen control. Analysis of root samples in localized and split-root experiments also indicated increased induction of chitinase (2.2- and 2.6-fold, respectively) and β-1,3-glucanase (1.4- and 1.1-fold, respectively). In native gel activity assay, S2BC-1+GIBC-Jamog with challenge-inoculation, expressed high intensity peroxidase isoforms in localized and ISR experiments. It is presumed that the induced chitinase, β-1,3-glucanase and peroxidase in localized and split-root experiments may be involved in the reduction of vascular wilt development in tomato. Reduced disease severity coupled with enhanced enzyme production elicited by S2BC-1+GIBC-Jamog in localized and split-root experiments indicate that its mode of action for vascular wilt suppression in tomato is through both direct biocontrol and ISR. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.