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Seth C.S.,Institute of Himalayan Bioresource Technology
Botanical Review | Year: 2012

This article deals with the advances and implication of phytoremediation technologies with emphasis on remediation of toxic heavy metals from contaminated soil. Most of the conventional remedial technologies are expensive and inhibit the soil fertility and cause negative impacts on various ecosystem services. However, phytoremediation is a cost effective and ecofriendly approach, which does not adversely affect soil properties and ecosystem services. In recent years, major progresses have been made in understanding the physiological mechanisms of metal uptake and transport in hyper accumulators. However, the molecular mechanisms of metal uptake, translocation, accumulation and detoxification in plants and their further implication in transgenic development for efficient phytoremediation are not well understood. In view of above, present review article brings together existing bits of information to create a new direction for future research, critical gap in knowledge and a new perspective on remediation of toxic pollutants. © 2011 The New York Botanical Garden. Source

Agnihotri V.K.,Institute of Himalayan Bioresource Technology
Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology | Year: 2014

Cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) are the most primitive prokaryotic photosynthetic organisms, that have survived and flourished on the planet for more than 3 billion years and produced the oxygen that enabled aerobic metabolism. Anabaena is a genus of filamentous cyanobacteria, known for its nitrogen fixing abilities and is one of cyanobacterial genera that produce toxins. Because of plasmid DNA, the nontoxic strain of Anabaena flos-aquae, transformed into a toxic strain that producing neuro-toxins. The major toxins those were produced by this species are anatoxin-a, homoanatoxin-a, and anatoxin-a(s). Presence of these toxins in the source of fresh water makes water toxic and every year so many reports on death of animals were documented. Several studies have been done over this toxic cyanobacterium and showed that under controlled environment this species is very useful for human being. However, presence of this alga in the water sources makes environment toxic. Several analytical methods were reported for the detection of these toxins. This review is be focused on the detailed literature survey on fresh water cyanobacterium, Anabaena flos-aquae, with respect to its importance and cure. © 2014 Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Source

Shivanna N.,Defence Food Research Laboratory | Naika M.,Defence Food Research Laboratory | Khanum F.,Defence Food Research Laboratory | Kaul V.K.,Institute of Himalayan Bioresource Technology
Journal of Diabetes and its Complications | Year: 2013

Background: Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni has been used for the treatment of diabetes in, for example, Brazil, although a positive effect on antidiabetic and its complications has not been unequivocally demonstrated. This herb also has numerous therapeutic properties which have been proven safe and effective over hundreds of years. Streptozotocin is a potential source of oxidative stress that induces genotoxicity. Objective: We studied the effects of stevia leaves and its extracted polyphenols and fiber on streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. We hypothesize that supplementation of polyphenols extract from stevia to the diet causes a reduction in diabetes and its complications. Design/Methods: Eighty Wistar rats were randomly divided into 8 groups; a standard control diet was supplemented with either stevia whole leaves powder (4.0%) or polyphenols or fiber extracted from stevia separately and fed for one month. Streptozotocin (60 mg/kg body weight, i.p) was injected to the diabetic groups on the 31st day. Several indices were analyzed to assess the modulation of the streptozotocin induced oxidative stress, toxicity and blood glucose levels by stevia. Results: The results showed a reduction of blood glucose, ALT and AST, and increment of insulin level in the stevia whole leaves powder and extracted polyphenols fed rats compared to control diabetic group. Its feeding also reduced the MDA concentration in liver and improved its antioxidant status through antioxidant enzymes. Glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity were improved by their feeding. Streptozotocin was also found to induce kidney damage as evidenced by decreased glomerular filtration rate; this change was however alleviated in the stevia leaves and extracted polyphenol fed groups. Conclusion: The results suggested that stevia leaves do have a significant role in alleviating liver and kidney damage in the STZ-diabetic rats besides its hypoglycemic effect. It might be adequate to conclude that stevia leaves could protect rats against streptozotocin induced diabetes, reduce the risk of oxidative stress and ameliorate liver and kidney damage. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source

Bhatti S.,Institute of Himalayan Bioresource Technology | Jha G.,Institute of Himalayan Bioresource Technology
Plant Cell Reports | Year: 2010

Apple (Malus domestica Borkh.), which is a widely cultivated, important economic fruit crop with nutritive and medicinal importance, has emerged as a model horticultural crop in this post-genomic era. Apple cultivation is heavily dependent on climatic condition and is susceptible to several diseases caused by fungi, bacteria, viruses, insects, etc. Extensive research work has been carried out to standardize tissue culture protocols and utilize them in apple improvement. We review the in vitro shoot multiplication, rooting, transformation and regeneration methodologies in apple and tabulate various such protocols for easy reference. The utility and limitation of transgenesis in apple improvement have also been summarized. The concepts of marker-free plants, use of non-antibiotic resistance selectable markers, and cisgenic and intragenic approaches are highlighted. Furthermore, the limitations, current trends and future prospects of tissue culture-mediated biotechnological interventions in apple improvement are discussed. © 2010 Springer-Verlag. Source

Bhattacharya A.,Institute of Himalayan Bioresource Technology | Sood P.,Institute of Himalayan Bioresource Technology | Citovsky V.,State University of New York at Stony Brook
Molecular Plant Pathology | Year: 2010

Phenolics are aromatic benzene ring compounds with one or more hydroxyl groups produced by plants mainly for protection against stress. The functions of phenolic compounds in plant physiology and interactions with biotic and abiotic environments are difficult to overestimate. Phenolics play important roles in plant development, particularly in lignin and pigment biosynthesis. They also provide structural integrity and scaffolding support to plants. Importantly, phenolic phytoalexins, secreted by wounded or otherwise perturbed plants, repel or kill many microorganisms, and some pathogens can counteract or nullify these defences or even subvert them to their own advantage. In this review, we discuss the roles of phenolics in the interactions of plants with Agrobacterium and Rhizobium. © 2010 The Authors. Source

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