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Li Z.Q.,Institute of Hematology and Blood Disease Hospital
Zhonghua xue ye xue za zhi = Zhonghua xueyexue zazhi | Year: 2012

To explore the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of refractory cytopenia of children (RCC) according to WHO classification, and discuss the relationship between the cytology reviewed by hematologists and histology reviewed by pathologists. We selected 50 non-severe aplastic anemia cases from 2007 - 2010 in our hospital and collected clinical data. Experienced hematologists and pathologists evaluated bone marrow biopsy and smear respectively. Of 50 cases, 23 were male and 27 female (M:F = 1:1.17), the median age at diagnosis was 9 years (ranged from 3 to 14 years). 5 patients had disagreement of diagnosis between hematologists and pathologists. In 3 cases hematologists diagnosed as aplastic anemia (AA) and pathologists as RCC, 2 cases vice versa. The final diagnoses of 50 patients reached consensus between hematologists and pathologists were AA 16 cases, RCC 34 cases including 8 refractory cytopenias with multilineage dysplasia (RCMD) cases. All 16 cases AA showed severe hypocellularity. Only 4 cases (25.00%) RCC showed severe hypocellularity, 19 cases (73.08%) RCC showed mild hypocellularity and 3 cases (11.54%) RCC were normal hypocellularity. Our results suggests that RCC was not rare in China. The main feature of RCC was dysplasia because of absence of increased blast. RCC was easily confused with AA. The main points of differential were present dysplastic changes of megakaryocyte best appreciated by the hematologists and morphologists and abnormal location of hematopoietic easily observed by pathologists. Overall, cytology and histology were complementary in the investigation of RCC and AA, because of sometimes one might give information that not be given from the other.

Ruan M.,Institute of Hematology and Blood Disease Hospital
Zhonghua xue ye xue za zhi = Zhonghua xueyexue zazhi | Year: 2012

Acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML) accounts for 15 to 25 percent of childhood acute leukemias. Cytogenetic information is important for diagnosis, classification and prognosis of AML. Our aim was to analyze the relationship between karyotypic characteristics and prognosis of childhood AML. According to karyotypic characteristics, 128 newly diagnosed children AML were separated into 4 subgroups: patients with t(15;17) (group APL), patients with t(8;21)/inv(16) (group A), patients with -7/t(9;22)/complex karyotypes (group C) and the others (group B). Prognoses of these patients were analyzed. The ages ranged from 1 to 16 years with the mean age of 7 years. 85 boys and 43 girls were included in this study. The 4-year event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) rates were (55.9 ± 4.7)% and (69.3% ± 4.5)%, respectively. The 4-year EFS and OS of non-M(3)-AML patients were (49.9 ± 5.2)% and (57.1 ± 6.0)%, respectively. The probabilities of 4-year EFS of the four subgroups were (72.2 ± 1.1)%, (66.3 ± 7.7)%, (38.5 ± 9.1)% and (20.1 ± 12.3)%, respectively (P = 0.000). The probabilities of 4-year OS were (92.6 ± 5.1)%, (69.4 ± 7.9)%, (55.6 ± 8.6)% and (30.0 ± 12.3)%, respectively (P = 0.000). Cytogenetic aberrations seen in pediatric AML had a significant impact on prognosis.

Li B.,Institute of Hematology and Blood Disease Hospital
Zhonghua xue ye xue za zhi = Zhonghua xueyexue zazhi | Year: 2012

To analyze the clinical features and survival time in primary myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) patients accompanied with immunological abnormalities. The clinical information, laboratory findings and survival time in 194 untreated primary MDS patients with complete immunological laboratory tests or a past history of autoimmune disease were analyzed retrospectively. There were 37/194 cases (19.07%) with autoimmune abnormalities, including 16/194 (8.25%) with autoimmune disease and 21/194 asymptomatic cases (10.82%) with serologic immunological abnormalities only. There was significant differences in the distribution of age < 60 years old, female, CD4(+)T-cell/CD8(+)T-cell ration < 1 and trisomy 8 (P < 0.05) between the cases with autoimmune disease and without autoimmune abnormalities. The former had a higher 2-year OS, but there was no significance (P = 0.065). There was no significant differences in the distribution of age, MDS-subtype, IPSS risk groups, haemoglobin, absolute neutrophil count, platelets count, the severity of anemia and neutropenia, high level of serologic TNF, chromosomal abnormalities, cytogenetic risk groups and bone marrow cellularity (P > 0.05). MDS patients with autoimmune disease are mainly female and younger than 60 years old, with high proportion of trisomy 8 and better prognosis.

Liu X.,Institute of Hematology and Blood Disease Hospital
Zhonghua xue ye xue za zhi = Zhonghua xueyexue zazhi | Year: 2013

To evaluate the efficacy and safety of antifungal prophylaxis of itraconazole in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) to probe the relationship of the antifungal effect and the adverse events with serum concentration. From April 2009 to May 2011, a total of 310 courses from 112 patients referred to our institute were enrolled in this study; of them, 297 courses were eligible for analysis. Eligible cases were randomized into oral group and injection/oral group according to different chemotherapy of induction and consolidation. Blood samples were collected at different time points for measurements of serum itraconazole levels. The morbidity of IFI and the adverse events were analyzed. The morbidities of IFI in injection/oral and oral groups were 10.1% and 20.9%, respectively (P=0.010). 7 and 9 cases in injection/oral and oral groups, respectively were withdrawn from the study because of adverse events, and the difference between these two groups was of no significance. Serum itraconazole levels of injection/oral and oral groups were 672(299-1097) μg/L and 534(210-936) μg/L, respectively (P<0.01). Antifungal prophylaxis with itraconazole in AML patients was effective and safe. Prophylactic effect with injection/oral itraconazole was superior to oral itraconazole solution; moreover, prophylactic effect of itraconazole was highly correlated with its serum level.

Han M.,Institute of Hematology and Blood Disease Hospital
Zhonghua xue ye xue za zhi = Zhonghua xueyexue zazhi | Year: 2015

OBJECTIVE: To observe the clinical characteristics of infections in adult acute leukemia (AL)patients during chemotherapy in hospital, and identify the risk factors for infections.METHODS: A retrospective study of patients with AL who underwent chemotherapy between July 2010 and Dec 2014 in the First Affiliated Hospital of Xiamen University was conducted. Clinical features and risk factors for infections were analyzed.RESULTS: 191 patients with AL received a total of 728 courses of chemotherapies. During these admissions, 385(52.9%) infections episodes occurred. The common infections sites were lower respiratory tract infection(36.3%,153/374), bloodstream infection(17.1%, 64/374), oral infection(13.6%,51/374), and perianal infection(13.4%, 50/374). 164 strains of pathogenic bacteria were detected. Gram- negative bacteria were recorded in 59.1% of documented pathogens, and Gram- positive bacteria were responsible for 32.9% of infections. Multivariate unconditioned logistic analysis of factors identified consistent independent risk factors for no completely remission(OR=0.142, P< 0.001), duration of neutropenia longer than 7 days(OR=12.764, P<0.001), general wards(OR=1.821, P< 0.001), and hospitalization interval longer than 10 days(OR=0.720, P=0.039).CONCLUSION: Infections after chemotherapy for AL continues to be common. AL patients with induction chemotherapy or severe neutropenia faced an increased risk of infections by multivariate analysis. And patients with short-term stay or laminar flow wards seem to be less susceptible to infections.

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