Shin H.J.,Institute of Health science |
Kim H.,Institute of Health science |
Heo R.W.,Institute of Health science |
Kim H.J.,Institute of Health science |
And 3 more authors.
Cell Death and Differentiation | Year: 2014
Kainic acid (KA)-induced seizures followed by neuronal death are associated with neuroinflammation and blood-brain barrier (BBB) leakage. Tonicity-responsive enhancer binding protein (TonEBP) is known as a transcriptional factor activating osmoprotective genes, and in brain, it is expressed in neuronal nuclei. Thus dysregulation of TonEBP may be involved in the pathology of KA-induced seizures. Here we used TonEBP heterozygote ( +/-) mice to study the roles of TonEBP. Electroencephalographic study showed that TonEBP (+/-) mice reduced seizure frequency and severity compared with wild type during KA-induced status epilepticus. Immunohistochemistry and western blotting analysis showed that KA-induced neuroinflammation and BBB leakage were dramatically reduced in TonEBP ( +/-) mice. Similarly, TonEBP-specific siRNA reduced glutamate-induced death in HT22 hippocampal neuronal cells. TonEBP haplodeficiency prevented KA-induced nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 and attenuated inflammation. Our findings identify TonEBP as a critical regulator of neuroinflammation and BBB leakage in KA-induced seizures, which suggests TonEBP as a good therapeutic target. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved.
Pan W.,CAS Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences |
Zhu S.,Institute of Health science |
Yuan M.,CAS Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences |
Cui H.,CAS Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences |
And 6 more authors.
Journal of Immunology | Year: 2010
Systemic lupus erythematosus is a complex autoimmune disease caused by genetic and epigenetic alterations. DNA methylation abnormalities play an important role in systemic lupus erythematosus disease processes. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been implicated as fine-tuning regulators controlling diverse biological processes at the level of posttranscriptional repression. Dysregulation of miRNAs has been described in various disease states, including human lupus. Whereas previous studies have shown miRNAs can regulate DNA methylation by targeting the DNA methylation machinery, the role of miRNAs in aberrant CD4+ T cell DNA hypomethylation of lupus is unclear. In this study, by using high-throughput microRNA profiling, we identified that two miRNAs (miR-21 and miR-148a) overexpressed in CD4+ T cells from both patients with lupus and lupus-prone MRL/lpr mice, which promote cell hypomethylation by repressing DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) expression. This in turn leads to the overexpression of autoimmune-associated methylation-sensitive genes, such as CD70 and LFA-1, via promoter demethylation. Further experiments revealed that miR-21 indirectly downregulated DNMT1 expression by targeting an important autoimmune gene, RASGRP1, which mediated the Ras-MAPK pathway upstream of DNMT1; miR-148a directly downregulated DNMT1 expression by targeting the protein coding region of its transcript. Additionally, inhibition of miR-21 and miR-148a expression in CD4+ T cells from patients with lupus could increase DNMT1 expression and attenuate DNA hypomethylation. Together, our data demonstrated a critical functional link between miRNAs and the aberrant DNA hypomethylation in lupus CD4+ T cells and could help to develop new therapeutic approaches. Copyright © 2010 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.
Lajunen T.K.,University of Oulu |
Lajunen T.K.,Institute of Health science |
Jaakkola J.J.K.,University of Oulu |
Jaakkola J.J.K.,Institute of Health science |
Maritta S.J.,University of Oulu
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine | Year: 2013
Rationale: Identification of the subpopulation especially susceptible to the adverse effects of second-hand smoke exposure (SHS) would be useful for preventive actions and interventions. Objectives: To investigate whether asthmatic heredity indicates susceptibility to the effects of SHS on the risk of adult-onset asthma. Methods:Apopulation-based incident casecontrol study of clinically defined adult-onset asthma and randomly drawn control subjects (adults 2163 yr old) from a geographically defined area in South Finland. After excluding current and ex-smokers there were 226 cases and 450 disease-free control subjects. Measurements and Main Results: Our outcome measure was new adult-onset asthma. Parental asthma and recent SHS had a synergistic effect on the risk of asthma, the adjusted odds ratio being 1.97 (95% confidence interval, 1.123.45) for SHS; 2.64 (1.654.24) for parental asthma; and 12.69 (3.4446.91) for their joint effect (relative excess risk due interaction, 9.08 [20.22 to 43.18]). Synergistic effect followed a dose-dependent pattern with both recent and cumulative SHS exposures, with relative excess risk due interaction for parental asthma and over 100 SHS cigarette-years of 6.17 (0.5719.16). Conclusions: This is the first study showing that individuals with asthmatic heredity have a considerably increased risk of adult-onset asthma when exposed to SHS. SHS exposure has dose-dependent synergism with family history of asthma, the joint effect being stronger with higher exposure levels. AvoidingSHS could be an important preventive measure for reducing the risk of adult-onset asthma among those with asthmatic heredity. Asking about family history of asthma is a useful tool for identifying these susceptible individuals in clinical and preventive settings. Copyright © 2013 by the American Thoracic Society.
Kang J.-M.,Institute of Health science |
Bahk Y.-Y.,Yonsei University |
Cho P.-Y.,Chung - Ang University |
Hong S.-J.,Chung - Ang University |
And 3 more authors.
Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology | Year: 2010
Cysteine proteases of helminth parasites play essential roles in parasite physiology as well as in a variety of important pathobiological processes. In this study, we identified a multigene family of cathepsin F cysteine proteases in Clonorchis sinensis (CsCFs). We identified a total of 12 CsCF genes through cDNA cloning using degenerate PCR primers followed by RACE. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis of the genes suggested they belonged to the cathepsin F-like enzyme family and further clustered into three different subfamilies. Enzymatic and proteomic analysis of C. sinensis excretory and secretory products (ESP) revealed that multiple isoforms of CsCF were the major proteins present in the ESP and the proteolytic activity of the ESP is mainly attributable to the enzymes. Comparative analysis of representative enzymes for each subfamily, CsCF-4, CsCF-6, and CsCF-11, showed that they share similar biochemical properties typical for cathepsin F-like enzymes, but significant differences were also identified. The enzymes were expressed throughout various developmental stages of the parasite and the transcripts increased gradually in accordance with the maturation of the parasite. Immunolocalization analysis of CsCFs showed that they were mainly localized in the intestine and intestinal contents of the parasite. These results collectively suggested that CsCFs, which are apparently synthesized in the epithelial cells lining the parasite intestine and secreted into the intestinal lumen of the parasite, might have a cooperative role for nutrient uptake in the parasite. Furthermore, they were eventually secreted into outside of the parasite and may perform additional functions for host-parasite interactions. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Azman K.F.,Universiti Sains Malaysia |
Zakaria R.,Universiti Sains Malaysia |
Abdaziz C.,Universiti Sains Malaysia |
Othman Z.,Universiti Sains Malaysia |
Al-Rahbi B.,Institute of Health science
Noise and Health | Year: 2015
Recent evidence has exhibited dietary influence on the manifestation of different types of behavior induced by stressor tasks. The present study examined the effects of Tualang honey supplement administered with the goal of preventing or attenuating the occurrence of stress-related behaviors in male rats subjected to noise stress. Forty-eight adult male rats were randomly divided into the following four groups: i) nonstressed with vehicle, ii) nonstressed with Tualang honey, iii) stressed with vehicle, and iv) stressed with honey. The supplement was given once daily via oral gavage at 0.2 g/kg body weight. Two types of behavioral tests were performed, namely, the novel object recognition test to evaluate working memory and the forced swimming test to evaluate depressive-like behavior. Data were analyzed by a two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) using IBM SPSS 18.0. It was observed that the rats subjected to noise stress expressed higher levels of depressive-like behavior and lower memory functions compared to the unexposed control rats. In addition, our results indicated that the supplementation regimen successfully counteracted the effects of noise stress. The forced swimming test indicated that climbing and swimming times were significantly increased and immobility times significantly decreased in honey-supplemented rats, thereby demonstrating an antidepressant-like effect. Furthermore, cognitive function was shown to be intensely affected by noise stress, but the effects were counteracted by the honey supplement. These findings suggest that subchronic exposure to noise stress induces depressive-like behavior and reduces cognitive functions, and that these effects can be attenuated by Tualang honey supplementation. This warrants further studies to examine the role of Tulang honey in mediating such effects.
Jankowicz-Szymanska A.,Institute of Health science |
Mikolajczyk E.,University School of Physical Education in Cracow
Pediatric Physical Therapy | Year: 2016
Purpose: To examine the relationship between obesity, genu valgum, and flat feet in children, and find practical implications for therapeutic interventions. Methods: A total of 1364 children aged 3-7 years took part in the research. Their body mass index was calculated and their weight status described. Participants' knee alignment was assessed by measuring the intermalleolar distance in the standing position with the knees in contact. The height of the longitudinal arch of each foot was measured using Clarke's angle. Results: The prevalence of overweight and obesity increased with age. Reduction of intermalleolar distance and increased longitudinal arch of the foot, characteristic of typical growth and development, were observed. Genu valgum was more common in children who were overweight. Significant correlations among body mass index, intermalleolar distance, and Clarke's angle (P <.05) were also discovered. Conclusion: Children who are overweight or demonstrate obesity are more likely to develop genu valgum and flat feet. © 2016 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. and Section on Pediatrics of the American Physical Therapy Association.
Jankowicz-Szymanska A.,Institute of Health Science |
Mikolajczyk E.,University of Physical Education in Warsaw |
Wardzala R.,Institute of Health Science
Journal of Pediatric Orthopaedics Part B | Year: 2015
Twenty-nine male judocas and nontraining peers participated in this study. The arch of the foot (as Clarke's angular values) was measured under non-weight-bearing conditions in two-leg and one-leg stands. Postural balance was assessed by the Flamingo balance test. Judocas presented better static balance and higher arches of the foot. Significant differences in Clarke's angular values in a sitting and standing on two-leg position were found in both groups. After transition to a one-leg stand, the height of the arches of the foot in nontraining participants was still significantly decreased. Weight bearing did not affect Clarke's angular values in judokas. A correlation was found between the Flamingo test and Clarke's angle. Better balance was observed in adolescents with higher arch of the foot. © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc.
Kim J.P.,Institute of Health science |
Park J.J.,Institute of Health science |
Kang H.S.,Institute of Health science |
Song M.S.,Yeil Medical Center
American Journal of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Medicine and Surgery | Year: 2010
Many patients and their families regard tonsillectomy as a minor operation because it is performed so commonly. However, although tonsillectomy is indeed a relatively safe surgical procedure, in extremely rare cases, it can be complicated by subcutaneous emphysema and pneumomediastinum. Although these complications resolve spontaneously in most cases, a few conclude in tension pneumothorax and other fatal complications. The mechanism by which subcutaneous emphysema and pneumomediastinum develop after tonsillectomy is poorly understood. We experienced a case in which subcutaneous emphysema, pneumomediastinum, and a deep defect in the tonsillar fossa were observed. The passage of air was shown by radiology and histopathology. Consequently, the case is reported here. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Joshi S.R.,Institute of Health science |
Vasantha K.,National Institute of Immunohaematology
Asian Journal of Transfusion Science | Year: 2012
From transfusion point of view, a rare blood is the one which lacks a high-frequency antigen as well as the one who lacks multiple common antigens and such blood donations help in transfusion to those recipients having alloantibodies to corresponding antigens. In India, we have about four such kinds of phenotypes potential enough to pose problems in providing blood to the recipients having these phenotypes. Besides, there are other four kinds of rare bloods that pose seldom problems in blood supply, though some of these may cause problems in interpretation of results on assigning proper blood groups for a person.
Noh H.,University of Georgia |
Hong S.,University of Georgia |
Dong Z.,University of Georgia |
Pan Z.K.,University of Toledo |
And 2 more authors.
Genes and Cancer | Year: 2011
Global mature microRNA (miRNA) expression is downregulated in cancers, and impaired miRNA processing enhances cancer cell proliferation. These findings indicate that the miRNA system generally serves as a negative regulator during cancer progression. In this study, we investigated the role of the miRNA system in cancer cell invasion by determining the effect of damaging miRNA processing on invasion-essential urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) expression in breast cancer cells. Short hairpin RNAs specific for Drosha, DGCR8, and Dicer, key components of miRNA processing machinery, were introduced into 2 breast cancer cell lines with high uPA expression and 2 lines with poor uPA expression. Knockdown of Drosha, DGCR8, or Dicer led to even higher uPA expression in cells with high uPA expression, while it was unable to increase uPA level in cells with poor uPA expression, suggesting that the miRNA system most likely impacts uPA expression as a facilitator. In cells with high uPA expression, knockdown of Drosha, DGCR8, or Dicer substantially increased in vitro invasion, and depleting uPA abrogated enhanced invasion. These results thus link the augmented invasion conferred by impaired miRNA processing to upregulated uPA expression. uPA mRNA was a direct target of miR-193a/b and miR-181a, and a higher uPA level in cells with impaired miRNA processing resulted from less mature miR-193a/b and miR-181a processed from their respective primary miRNAs. Importantly, the levels of mature miR-193a, miR-193b, and miR-181a, but not their respective primary miRNAs, were lower in high uPA-expressing cells compared to cells with low uPA expression, and this apparently attributed to lower Drosha/DGCR8 expression in high uPA-expressing cells. This study suggests that less efficient miRNA processing can be a mechanism responsible for reduced levels of mature forms of tumor-suppressive miRNAs frequently detected in cancers. © The Author(s) 2011.