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Gonzalez-Navarro H.,Institute of Health Research INCLIVA | Vinue A.,Institute Biomedicina Of Valencia Ibv | Sanz M.J.,Institute of Health Research INCLIVA | Sanz M.J.,University of Valencia | And 4 more authors.
Aging Cell | Year: 2013

Recent genome-wide association studies have linked type-2 diabetes mellitus to a genomic region in chromosome 9p21 near the Ink4/Arf locus, which encodes tumor suppressors that are up-regulated in a variety of mammalian organs during aging. However, it is unclear whether the susceptibility to type-2 diabetes is associated with altered expression of the Ink4/Arf locus. In the present study, we investigated the role of Ink4/Arf in age-dependent alterations of insulin and glucose homeostasis using Super-Ink4/Arf mice which bear an extra copy of the entire Ink4/Arf locus. We find that, in contrast to age-matched wild-type controls, Super-Ink4/Arf mice do not develop glucose intolerance with aging. Insulin tolerance tests demonstrated increased insulin sensitivity in Super-Ink4/Arf compared with wild-type mice, which was accompanied by higher activation of the insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-PI3K-AKT pathway in liver, skeletal muscle and heart. Glucose uptake studies in Super-Ink4/Arf mice showed a tendency toward increased 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in skeletal muscle compared with wild-type mice (P = 0.079). Furthermore, a positive correlation between glucose uptake and baseline glucose levels was observed in Super-Ink4/Arf mice (P < 0.008) but not in wild-type mice. Our studies reveal a protective role of the Ink4/Arf locus against the development of age-dependent insulin resistance and glucose intolerance. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/Anatomical Society of Great Britain and Ireland.

Lopez-Grueso R.,University of Valencia | Gambini J.,University of Valencia | Abdelaziz K.M.,University of Valencia | Monleon D.,Institute of Health Research INCLIVA | And 5 more authors.
Antioxidants and Redox Signaling | Year: 2014

Aims: The usefulness of estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) in preventing oxidative stress associated with menopause is controversial. We aimed to study if there is a critical time window for effective treatment of the effects of ovariectomy with estrogens at the molecular, metabolic, and cellular level. Results: Our main finding is that early, but not late onset of ERT prevents an ovariectomy-Associated increase in mitochondrial hydrogen peroxide levels, oxidative damage to lipids and proteins, and a decrease in glutathione peroxidase and catalase activity in rats. This may be due to a change in the estrogen receptor (ER) expression profile: ovariectomy increases the ER α/β ratio and immediate estrogen replacement prevents it. Positron emission tomography analysis shows that ovariectomy decreases the brain glucose uptake in vivo and that estrogen administration is beneficial, but only if administered immediately after deprivation. Ovariectomy decreases GLUT-1 and 3 glucose transporters in the brain, and only early onset estrogen administration prevents it. Plasma from rats treated with estrogens immediately after ovariectomy show similar metabolomics profiles as controls. Innovation: We provide molecular basis for the recommendation of early onset ERT and explain its lack of effectiveness if a significant time period elapses after ovariectomy and probably after the onset of menopause. Conclusion: Only early, but not late onset administration of estrogens after ovariectomy has beneficial effects at molecular levels on oxidative stress, brain glucose uptake, and metabolomic profiles. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 236-246. © Copyright 2014, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 2014.

Sandoval J.,Institute Dinvestigacio Biomedica Of Bellvitge Idibell | Peiro-Chova L.,Institute of Health Research INCLIVA | Pallardo F.V.,Institute of Health Research INCLIVA | Pallardo F.V.,Center for Biomedical Network Research on Rare Diseases | And 4 more authors.
Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics | Year: 2013

Epigenetics has emerged as a new and promising field in recent years. Lifestyle, stress, drugs, physiopathological situations and pharmacological interventions have a great impact on the epigenetic code of the cells by altering the methylome, miRNA expression and the covalent histone modifications. Since there exists a need to find new biomarkers and improve diagnosis for several diseases, the research on epigenetic biomarkers for molecular diagnostics encourages the translation of this field from the bench to clinical practice. In this context, deciphering intricate epigenetic modifications involved in several molecular processes is a challenge that will be solved in the near future. In this review, the authors present an overview of the high-throughput technologies and laboratory techniques available for epigenetic studies, and also discuss which of them are more reliable to be used in a clinical diagnostic laboratory. In addition, the authors describe the most promising epigenetic biomarkers in lung, colorectal and prostate cancer, in which most advances have been achieved. Finally, the authors describe epigenetic biomarkers in some rare diseases; these rare syndromes are paradigms for a specific impaired molecular pathway, thus providing valuable information on the discovery of new epigenetic biomarkers. © 2013 2013 Expert Reviews Ltd.

Rincon R.,OncoHealth | Cristobal I.,OncoHealth | Zazo S.,IIS Fundacion Jimenez Diaz | Arpi O.,Hospital Del Mar | And 9 more authors.
Oncotarget | Year: 2015

The protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is a key tumor suppressor which has emerged as a novel molecular target in some human cancers. Here, we show that PP2A inhibition is a common event in breast cancer and identified PP2A phosphorylation and deregulation SET and CIP2A as molecular contributing mechanisms to inactivate PP2A. Interestingly, restoration of PP2A activity after FTY720 treatment reduced cell growth, induced apoptosis and decreased AKT and ERK activation. Moreover, FTY720 led to PP2A activation then enhancing doxorubicin-induced antitumor effects both in vitro and in vivo. PP2A inhibition (CPscore: PP2A phosphorylation and/or CIP2A overexpression) was detected in 27% of cases (62/230), and associated with grade (p = 0.017), relapse (p < 0.001), negative estrogen (p < 0.001) and progesterone receptor expression (p < 0.001), HER2-positive tumors (p = 0.049), Ki-67 expression (p < 0.001), and higher AKT (p < 0.001) and ERK (p < 0.001) phosphorylation. Moreover, PP2A inhibition determined shorter overall (p = 0.006) and event-free survival (p = 0.003), and multivariate analysis confirmed its independent prognostic impact. Altogether, our results indicate that PP2A is frequently inactivated in breast cancer and determines worse outcome, and its restoration using PP2A activators represents an alternative therapeutic strategy in this disease.

Munoz M.,Instituto Valenciano Of Infertilidad | Cruz M.,Instituto Valenciano Of Infertilidad | Humaidan P.,University of Southern Denmark | Garrido N.,Institute of Health Research INCLIVA | And 2 more authors.
Reproductive BioMedicine Online | Year: 2012

During follicular growth, the follicle is exposed to an almost ever-changing composition of isoforms of FSH and LH, which causes a number of different and divergent biological effects. Through a time-lapse system, embryo kinetics were examined following the use of FSH only (recombinant FSH, rFSH) and gonadotrophins containing LH activity (human menopausal gonadotrophin, HMG, and FSH + HMG) in oocyte donors. No significant differences were seen between the three groups (for rFSH, HMG and rFSH + HMG, t2 was 27.8 h, 27.9 h and 27.5 h respectively). Moreover, although embryos obtained with rFSH showed an increase in the proportions of optimal timings of development, the differences observed were not significant, as shown by the percentages of embryos inside/outside these kinetic variables. In contrast, for gonadotrophin dosage and oestradiol concentration, this study observed differences in embryo development kinetics for some of the variables evaluated, which allowed the description of an optimal range of gonadotrophin dosage and oestradiol concentration. However, these kinetic differences did not translate into important distinctions in the proportion of optimal embryos with a higher implantation potential. © 2012, Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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