Institute of Health Policy Management and Evaluation

Anderson, United States

Institute of Health Policy Management and Evaluation

Anderson, United States
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Nguyen G.C.,University of Toronto | Nguyen G.C.,Institute for Clinical Evaluative science | Nguyen G.C.,Institute of Health Policy Management and Evaluation | Sheng L.,Institute for Clinical Evaluative science | And 2 more authors.
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases | Year: 2015

Background: There is an increasing burden of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) among the elderly. We sought to characterize health care utilization of elderly onset IBD. Methods: We identified incident IBD cases in Ontario, Canada between 1999 and 2008 and categorized subjects by age at diagnosis as young (18-40 yr), middle-age (41-64 yr), and elderly (≥65 yr). We compared IBD-specific health utilization indicators, including outpatient visits, emergency department visits, and hospitalizations. Results: The elderly accounted for 8.1% (N 725) and 11.6% (N 1749) of incident Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), respectively. They were less likely than young adults to have any IBD-specific gastroenterology visit in the first year after diagnosis (CD, 63% versus 71%, P < 0.001; UC, 63% versus 69%, P < 0.001). They less frequently received continuous gastroenterology care (CD, 36% versus 46%, P < 0.001; UC, 33% versus 43%, P < 0.001). Elderly patients with IBD were less likely than young adults to require an IBD-specific emergency department visit in the first year (CD, 8.8% versus 18.5%, P < 0.001; UC, 7.8% versus 11.6%, P < 0.001). Similarly, elderly patients with CD exhibited lower hospitalization rates (incidence rate ratio, 0.62; 95% confidence interval, 0.59-0.65). Hospitalization rates were modestly higher among those elderly patients with UC compared with young adults during the first year (incidence rate ratio, 1.14; 95% confidence interval: 1.02-1.28), but this association reversed thereafter (incidence rate ratio, 0.64; 95% confidence interval: 0.57-0.71). Conclusions: Elderly patients with IBD exhibited lower IBD-specific health care utilization than young adults, which may reflect a multitude of factors including more benign disease and differential health care access. Copyright © 2015 Crohn's & Colitis Foundation of America, Inc.

Stinson J.N.,University of Toronto | Jibb L.A.,University of Toronto | Lalloo C.,Baycrest Center for Geriatric Care | Feldman B.M.,University of Toronto | And 8 more authors.
Clinical Journal of Pain | Year: 2014

Objective: The current study investigated the construct validity of a multidimensional pain diary for youth with juvenile idiopathic arthritis and also compared participants' responses on electronic and retrospective diary measures. The purpose of the latter part of this study was to compare absolute agreement, between-person and within-person consistency and judged change in weekly pain between these 2 methods of assessing pain. Methods: A total of 70 adolescents with juvenile idiopathic arthritis completed both weekly recalled and momentary reports of pain over a 2-week period and assessed their change in pain over the 2- week period using a 5-point global change in pain scale. The Pearson correlations and intraclass correlation coefficients were computed to demonstrate 3 different ways of comparing the measures on both between-person and within-person basis. Results: Momentary ratings of pain episodes were consistently greater than weekly ratings of recalled pain. Moderate to strong consistency and agreement correlations were computed for between-person momentary and recalled pain intensity. However, these correlations were much weaker when the within-person data were analyzed. The judged change in pain across weeks was significantly associated with computed change in both average momentary and recalled pain. Discussion: This is one of the few studies to explore the relationship between the measurement methods of pain recall and momentary assessment in adolescents. The poor within-person correlations observed have important implications for research design and practice in pediatric pain. Copyright © 2014 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Kiran T.,Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute | Kiran T.,St Michaels Hospital | Kiran T.,University of Toronto | Victor J.C.,Institute for Clinical Evaluative science | And 9 more authors.
Canadian Journal of Diabetes | Year: 2014

This study examined the association between Ontario's differing primary care models and receipt of recommended testing for people with diabetes. We analyzed available administrative data for 757 928 people with diabetes aged 40 years and older. We assigned them to a primary care physician and assessed whether they had received 3 key monitoring tests between 2006 and 2008. We used multivariable generalized estimating equation models to test the associations among various primary care models and receipt of recommended testing. Ontarians with diabetes who were enrolled in a non-team blended capitation model (OR 1.18, 95% CI 1.09 to 1.27) and those enrolled in a team-based blended capitation model (OR 1.20, 95% CI 1.13 to 1.28) were more likely than those enrolled in a blended fee-for-service model to receive the optimal number of 3 recommended monitoring tests. Patients who were not enrolled in any model and who were assigned to a traditional fee-for-service physician were least likely to receive optimal monitoring compared to those enrolled in a blended fee-for-service model (OR 0.60, 95% CI 0.57 to 0.62).The biggest gap in diabetes care was for patients not enrolled in any primary care model. Research and policy work is needed to understand and reduce this care gap, especially which provider and patient-level factors are involved. Options may include intensive outreach to patients, knowledge translation to physicians, encouraging enrollment and efforts to remove barriers to care. © 2014 Canadian Diabetes Association.

Rapoport M.J.,Sunnybrook Health science Center | Naglie G.,Institute of Health Policy Management and Evaluation | Naglie G.,Baycrest Geriatric Health Care Center | Naglie G.,University of Toronto | And 8 more authors.
American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry | Year: 2014

Objective To establish consensus among dementia experts about which patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or mild dementia should be reported to transportation authorities. Methods We conducted a literature review of predictors of driving safety in patients with dementia and combined these into 26 case scenarios. Using a modified Delphi technique, case scenarios were reviewed by 38 dementia experts (geriatric psychiatrists, geriatricians, cognitive neurologists and family physicians with expertise in elder care) who indicated whether or not they would report the patient in each scenario to regional transportation authorities and recommend a specialized on-road driving test. Scenarios were presented up to five times to achieve consensus, defined as 85% agreement, and discrepancies were discussed anonymously online. Results By the end of the fifth iteration, there was cumulative consensus on 18 scenarios (69%). The strongest predictors of decision to report were the combination of caregiver concern about the patient's driving and abnormal Clock Drawing Test, which accounted for 62% of the variance in decision to report at the same time as or without a road test (p <0.01). Based on these data, an algorithm was developed to guide physician decision-making about reporting patients with MCI or mild dementia to transportation authorities. Conclusion This study supports existing international guidelines that recommend specialized on-road testing when driving safety is uncertain for patients with MCI and emphasizes the importance of assessing executive dysfunction and caregiver concern about driving. © 2014 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry.

Zawertailo L.,Center for Addiction and Mental Health | Zawertailo L.,University of Toronto | Dragonetti R.,Center for Addiction and Mental Health | Bondy S.J.,University of Toronto | And 6 more authors.
Tobacco Control | Year: 2013

Background There are important inequities in smoker access to clinic-based smoking cessation services. Low barrier high-reach interventions are proposed as solutions to these inequities. Although effective, telephone quitlines, which provide multi-session counselling but no medication, have low utilization with high attrition. The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of free nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), brief advice and self-help materials on quit attempts and 6-month quit rates in motivated smokers. Methods In this open-label naturalistic study, 14 000 treatments of 5 weeks in duration of either nicotine patch (n1/410 000) or nicotine gum (n1/44000) were made available to all eligible adult smokers in Ontario, Canada, who called a toll-free number to register with the STOP (Smoking Treatment for Ontario Patients) Study and receive a single brief intervention. The primary outcome measure was self-reported abstinence rates at 6 months post-treatment among STOP participants. These data were compared with quit rates that were reported in a concurrent no-intervention cohort of Ontario smokers matched for eligibility. Results 16 405 callers were assessed and 13143 eligible participants were mailed a treatment package with 5 weeks of NRT (choice of patch or gum), self-help and community resource materials. Among the 6261 participants who consented to follow-up, 2601 (42%) had complete follow-up data. Of those with complete follow-up data, the percentage reporting abstinence after 6 months in the treatment cohort was 21.4%, relative to 11.6% in the no-intervention cohort (rate ratio of 1.84; 95% CI 1.79 to 1.89), with the 30-day point prevalence of 17.8% and 9.8% for the intervention and nointervention cohorts, respectively (rate ratio 1.81; CI 1.75 to 1.87). Conclusions Provision of free NRT by mail following a brief telephone intervention is an effective strategy to reach and assist a large number of smokers making a quit attempt.

Wacsowicz M.,University of Toronto | Wacsowicz M.,Toronto General Hospital | Syed S.,Hamilton Health Sciences | Wijeysundera D.N.,University of Toronto | And 13 more authors.
British Journal of Anaesthesia | Year: 2016

Background Platelet inhibition is mandatory therapy after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Withdrawal of oral antiplatelet agents has been linked to increased incidence of postoperative adverse cardiac events in post-PCI patients having non-cardiac surgery (NCS). There is limited knowledge of temporal changes in platelet inhibition in this high-risk surgical population. We therefore performed a multicentre prospective cohort study evaluating perioperative platelet function and its association with postoperative major adverse cardiac events (MACE). Methods In 201 post-PCI patients having NCS, we assessed the association between platelet function and postoperative MACE. We performed perioperative platelet function testing using a platelet mapping assay (PMA). Troponin-I was measured every 8 h for 2 days, then daily until day 5. Myocardial infarction was assessed using the third universal definition. We used multivariable logistic regression to assess the association between platelet inhibition and MACE. Results Major adverse cardiac events occurred in 40 patients within 30 days of surgery. Thirty-two of these events were non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction, four ST-elevation myocardial infarction, and four exacerbation of congestive heart failure. We were unable to show an association between platelet inhibition and MACE. The PMA showed declining levels of platelet inhibition the longer the antiplatelet therapy was withheld before surgery. Logistic regression did not show an association between preoperative platelet function or the type of stent and MACE. We found an increased cardiac risk of MACE after surgery within 6 weeks of PCI. Conclusions The incidence of MACE in patients undergoing NCS after previous PCI is high in spite of adequate perioperative antiplatelet therapy. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia.

Razik R.,University of Toronto | Chong C.A.,Lakeridge Health Corporation | Nguyen G.C.,University of Toronto | Nguyen G.C.,Institute of Health Policy Management and Evaluation
Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology | Year: 2013

BACKGROUND: Traditionally regarded as a disease of the elderly, the incidence of diverticulitis of the colon has been on the rise, especially in younger cohorts. These patients have been found to experience a more aggressive disease course with more frequent hospitalization and greater need for surgical intervention. objective: To characterize factors that portend a poor prognosis in patients diagnosed with diverticulitis; in particular, to evaluate the role of demographic variables on disease course. METHODS: Using the Canadian Institute for Health Information Discharge Abstract Databases, readmission rates, length of stay, colectomy rates and mortality rates in patients hospitalized for diverticulitis were examined. Data were stratified according to age, sex and comorbidity (as defined by the Charlson index). RESULTS: In the cohort =30 years of age, a clear male predominance was apparent. Colectomy rate in the index admission, stratified according to age, demonstrated a J-shaped curve, with the highest rate in patients =30 years of age (adjusted OR 2.3 [95% CI 1.62 to 3.27]) compared with the 31 to 40 years of age group. In-hospital mortality increased with age. Cumulative rates of readmission at six and 12 months were 6.8% and 8.8%, respectively. CONCLUSION: In the present nationwide cohort study, younger patients (specifically those =30 years of age) were at highest risk for colectomy during their index admission for diverticulitis. It is unclear whether this observation was due to more virulent disease among younger patients, or surgeon and patient preferences. © 2013 Pulsus Group Inc. All rights reserved.

Barkova E.,South Shore Regional Hospital | Mohan U.,University of Calgary | Chitayat D.,Mount Sinai Hospital | Keating S.,Mount Sinai Hospital | And 5 more authors.
Clinical Genetics | Year: 2015

Fetal skeletal dysplasias are a heterogeneous group of rare genetic disorders, affecting approximately 2.4-4.5 of 10,000 births. We performed a retrospective review of the perinatal autopsies conducted between the years 2002-2011 at our center. The study population consisted of fetuses diagnosed with skeletal dysplasia with subsequent termination, stillbirth and live-born who died shortly after birth. Of the 2002 autopsies performed, 112 (5.6%) were diagnosed with skeletal dysplasia. These 112 cases encompassed 17 of 40 groups of Nosology 2010. The two most common Nosology groups were osteogenesis imperfecta [OI, 27/112 (24%)] and the fibroblast growth factor receptor type 3 (FGFR3) chondrodysplasias [27/112 (24%)]. The most common specific diagnoses were thanatophoric dysplasia (TD) type 1 [20 (17.9%)], and OI type 2 [20 (17.9%)]. The combined radiology, pathology, and genetic investigations and grouping the cases using Nosology 2010 resulted in a specific diagnosis in 96 of 112 cases. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Nguyen G.C.,University of Toronto | Nguyen G.C.,Institute of Health Policy Management and Evaluation | Bollegala N.,University of Toronto | Chong C.A.,Lakeridge Health Corporation
Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology | Year: 2014

Background & Aims: Patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are hospitalized frequently. We sought toidentify factors associated with risk for IBD-related readmission to the hospital. Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of 26,403 patients hospitalized for IBD from 2004 through 2010 using the Canadian Institute for Health Information Discharge Abstract databases. We examined whether demographic factors, comorbidity, and hospital IBD admission volume were associated with readmission rates, length of stay, bowel resection, and mortality. Results: Young, middle-age, and elderly adults were more than twice as likely to undergo surgery during hospitalization than pediatric patients. Elderly patients with IBD had a nearly 40-fold greater in-hospital mortality than pediatric patients (odds ratio, 37.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 5.17-270.0). In-hospital mortality was lower at hospitals with the highest volume of IBD patients than at those with low volume (odds ratio, 0.20; 95% CI, 0.05-0.97). Rates of readmission were lower for patients with ulcerative colitis than Crohn's disease (hazard ratio, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.72-0.86). The hazard ratios for readmission among young, middle-age, and elderly adults, compared with those of pediatric patients, were 0.79 (95% CI, 0.69-0.90), 0.57 (95% CI, 0.49-0.65), and 0.44 (95% CI, 0.37-0.53), respectively. Rates of readmission were lower at the highest-volume, compared with the lowest-volume, hospitals (hazard ratio, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.64-0.96). Conclusions: Based on a retrospective database analysis, pediatric patients with IBD are at greater risk for readmission to the hospital than older patients. Efforts should be made to determine whether factors that contribute to this risk are preventable. The lower risk of readmission at the highest-volume hospitals may reflect optimal management during hospitalization or follow-up evaluation. © 2014 AGA Institute.

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