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Barkova E.,South Shore Regional Hospital | Mohan U.,University of Calgary | Chitayat D.,The Prenatal Diagnosis and Medical Genetics Program | Toi A.,Mount Sinai Hospital | And 4 more authors.
Clinical Genetics | Year: 2015

Fetal skeletal dysplasias are a heterogeneous group of rare genetic disorders, affecting approximately 2.4-4.5 of 10,000 births. We performed a retrospective review of the perinatal autopsies conducted between the years 2002-2011 at our center. The study population consisted of fetuses diagnosed with skeletal dysplasia with subsequent termination, stillbirth and live-born who died shortly after birth. Of the 2002 autopsies performed, 112 (5.6%) were diagnosed with skeletal dysplasia. These 112 cases encompassed 17 of 40 groups of Nosology 2010. The two most common Nosology groups were osteogenesis imperfecta [OI, 27/112 (24%)] and the fibroblast growth factor receptor type 3 (FGFR3) chondrodysplasias [27/112 (24%)]. The most common specific diagnoses were thanatophoric dysplasia (TD) type 1 [20 (17.9%)], and OI type 2 [20 (17.9%)]. The combined radiology, pathology, and genetic investigations and grouping the cases using Nosology 2010 resulted in a specific diagnosis in 96 of 112 cases. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Nguyen G.C.,University of Toronto | Nguyen G.C.,Institute for Clinical Evaluative science | Nguyen G.C.,Institute of Health Policy Management and Evaluation | Sheng L.,Institute for Clinical Evaluative science | And 2 more authors.
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases | Year: 2015

Background: There is an increasing burden of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) among the elderly. We sought to characterize health care utilization of elderly onset IBD. Methods: We identified incident IBD cases in Ontario, Canada between 1999 and 2008 and categorized subjects by age at diagnosis as young (18-40 yr), middle-age (41-64 yr), and elderly (≥65 yr). We compared IBD-specific health utilization indicators, including outpatient visits, emergency department visits, and hospitalizations. Results: The elderly accounted for 8.1% (N 725) and 11.6% (N 1749) of incident Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), respectively. They were less likely than young adults to have any IBD-specific gastroenterology visit in the first year after diagnosis (CD, 63% versus 71%, P < 0.001; UC, 63% versus 69%, P < 0.001). They less frequently received continuous gastroenterology care (CD, 36% versus 46%, P < 0.001; UC, 33% versus 43%, P < 0.001). Elderly patients with IBD were less likely than young adults to require an IBD-specific emergency department visit in the first year (CD, 8.8% versus 18.5%, P < 0.001; UC, 7.8% versus 11.6%, P < 0.001). Similarly, elderly patients with CD exhibited lower hospitalization rates (incidence rate ratio, 0.62; 95% confidence interval, 0.59-0.65). Hospitalization rates were modestly higher among those elderly patients with UC compared with young adults during the first year (incidence rate ratio, 1.14; 95% confidence interval: 1.02-1.28), but this association reversed thereafter (incidence rate ratio, 0.64; 95% confidence interval: 0.57-0.71). Conclusions: Elderly patients with IBD exhibited lower IBD-specific health care utilization than young adults, which may reflect a multitude of factors including more benign disease and differential health care access. Copyright © 2015 Crohn's & Colitis Foundation of America, Inc.

Rapoport M.J.,Sunnybrook Health science Center | Naglie G.,Institute of Health Policy Management and Evaluation | Naglie G.,Baycrest Geriatric Health Care Center | Naglie G.,University of Toronto | And 9 more authors.
American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry | Year: 2014

Objective To establish consensus among dementia experts about which patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or mild dementia should be reported to transportation authorities. Methods We conducted a literature review of predictors of driving safety in patients with dementia and combined these into 26 case scenarios. Using a modified Delphi technique, case scenarios were reviewed by 38 dementia experts (geriatric psychiatrists, geriatricians, cognitive neurologists and family physicians with expertise in elder care) who indicated whether or not they would report the patient in each scenario to regional transportation authorities and recommend a specialized on-road driving test. Scenarios were presented up to five times to achieve consensus, defined as 85% agreement, and discrepancies were discussed anonymously online. Results By the end of the fifth iteration, there was cumulative consensus on 18 scenarios (69%). The strongest predictors of decision to report were the combination of caregiver concern about the patient's driving and abnormal Clock Drawing Test, which accounted for 62% of the variance in decision to report at the same time as or without a road test (p <0.01). Based on these data, an algorithm was developed to guide physician decision-making about reporting patients with MCI or mild dementia to transportation authorities. Conclusion This study supports existing international guidelines that recommend specialized on-road testing when driving safety is uncertain for patients with MCI and emphasizes the importance of assessing executive dysfunction and caregiver concern about driving. © 2014 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry.

Palmer K.S.,Simon Fraser University | Agoritsas T.,McMaster University | Agoritsas T.,University of Geneva | Martin D.,University of Toronto | And 19 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Background: Activity-based funding (ABF) of hospitals is a policy intervention intended to re-shape incentives across health systems through the use of diagnosis-related groups. Many countries are adopting or actively promoting ABF. We assessed the effect of ABF on key measures potentially affecting patients and health care systems: mortality (acute and post-acute care); readmission rates; discharge rate to post-acute care following hospitalization; severity of illness; volume of care.Methods: We undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis of the worldwide evidence produced since 1980. We included all studies reporting original quantitative data comparing the impact of ABF versus alternative funding systems in acute care settings, regardless of language. We searched 9 electronic databases (OVID MEDLINE, EMBASE, OVID Healthstar, CINAHL, Cochrane CENTRAL, Health Technology Assessment, NHS Economic Evaluation Database, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and Business Source), hand-searched reference lists, and consulted with experts. Paired reviewers independently screened for eligibility, abstracted data, and assessed study credibility according to a pre-defined scoring system, resolving conflicts by discussion or adjudication.Results: Of 16,565 unique citations, 50 US studies and 15 studies from 9 other countries proved eligible (i.e. Australia, Austria, England, Germany, Israel, Italy, Scotland, Sweden, Switzerland). We found consistent and robust differences between ABF and no-ABF in discharge to post-acute care, showing a 24% increase with ABF (pooled relative risk =1.24, 95% CI 1.18-1.31). Results also suggested a possible increase in readmission with ABF, and an apparent increase in severity of illness, perhaps reflecting differences in diagnostic coding. Although we found no consistent, systematic differences in mortality rates and volume of care, results varied widely across studies, some suggesting appreciable benefits from ABF, and others suggesting deleterious consequences.Conclusions: Transitioning to ABF is associated with important policy- and clinically-relevant changes. Evidence suggests substantial increases in admissions to post-acute care following hospitalization, with implications for system capacity and equitable access to care. High variability in results of other outcomes leaves the impact in particular settings uncertain, and may not allow a jurisdiction to predict if ABF would be harmless. Decision-makers considering ABF should plan for likely increases in post-acute care admissions, and be aware of the large uncertainty around impacts on other critical outcomes. © 2014 Palmer et al.

Stinson J.N.,University of Toronto | Jibb L.A.,University of Toronto | Lalloo C.,Baycrest Center for Geriatric Care | Feldman B.M.,University of Toronto | And 7 more authors.
Clinical Journal of Pain | Year: 2014

Objective: The current study investigated the construct validity of a multidimensional pain diary for youth with juvenile idiopathic arthritis and also compared participants' responses on electronic and retrospective diary measures. The purpose of the latter part of this study was to compare absolute agreement, between-person and within-person consistency and judged change in weekly pain between these 2 methods of assessing pain. Methods: A total of 70 adolescents with juvenile idiopathic arthritis completed both weekly recalled and momentary reports of pain over a 2-week period and assessed their change in pain over the 2- week period using a 5-point global change in pain scale. The Pearson correlations and intraclass correlation coefficients were computed to demonstrate 3 different ways of comparing the measures on both between-person and within-person basis. Results: Momentary ratings of pain episodes were consistently greater than weekly ratings of recalled pain. Moderate to strong consistency and agreement correlations were computed for between-person momentary and recalled pain intensity. However, these correlations were much weaker when the within-person data were analyzed. The judged change in pain across weeks was significantly associated with computed change in both average momentary and recalled pain. Discussion: This is one of the few studies to explore the relationship between the measurement methods of pain recall and momentary assessment in adolescents. The poor within-person correlations observed have important implications for research design and practice in pediatric pain. Copyright © 2014 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

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