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Tsasis P.,York University | Evans J.M.,Institute of Health Policy | Forrest D.,Global Vision Consulting Ltd | Keith Jones R.,R Keith Jones and Associates
Journal of Multidisciplinary Healthcare | Year: 2013

Health systems around the world are implementing integrated care strategies to improve quality, reduce or maintain costs, and improve the patient experience. Yet few practical tools exist to aid leaders and managers in building the prerequisites to integrated care, namely a shared vision, clear roles and responsibilities, and a common understanding of how the vision will be realized. Outcome mapping may facilitate stakeholder alignment on the vision, roles, and processes of integrated care delivery via participative and focused dialogue among diverse stakeholders on desired outcomes and enabling actions. In this paper, we describe an outcomemapping exercise we conducted at a Local Health Integration Network in Ontario, Canada, using consensus development conferences. Our preliminary findings suggest that outcome mapping may help stakeholders make sense of a complex system and foster collaborative capital, a resource that can support information sharing, trust, and coordinated change toward integration across organizational and professional boundaries. Drawing from the theoretical perspectives of complex adaptive systems and collaborative capital, we also outline recommendations for future outcome-mapping exercises. In particular, we emphasize the potential for outcome mapping to be used as a tool not only for identifying and linking strategic outcomes and actions, but also for studying the boundaries, gaps, and ties that characterize social networks across the continuum of care. © 2013 Tsasis et al, publisher and licensee Dove Medical Press Ltd.

Krueger H.,University of British Columbia | Krueger H.,H. Krueger and Associates Inc. and 200 4866 Delta Street | Lindsay P.,A+ Network | Lindsay P.,Institute of Health Policy | And 9 more authors.
Stroke | Year: 2012

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE-: Evidence-based stroke care has been shown to improve patient outcomes and may reduce health system costs. Cost savings, however, are poorly quantified. This study assesses 4 aspects of stroke management (rapid assessment and treatment services, thrombolytic therapy, organized stroke units, and early home-supported discharge) and estimates the potential for cost avoidance in Canada if these services were provided in a comprehensive fashion. METHODS-: Several independent data sources, including the Canadian Institute of Health Information Discharge Abstract Database, the 2008-2009 National Stroke Audit, and the Acute Cerebrovascular Syndrome Registry in the province of British Columbia, were used to assess the current status of stroke care in Canada. Evidence literature was used to estimate the effect of providing optimal stroke care on rates of acute care hospitalization, length of stay in hospital, discharge disposition (including death), changes in quality of life, and costs avoided. RESULTS-: Comprehensive and optimal stroke care in Canada would decrease the number of annual hospital episodes by 1062 (3.3%), the number of acute care days by 166 000 (25.9%), and the number of residential care days by 573 000 (12.8%). The number of deaths in the hospital would be reduced by 1061 (14.9%). Total avoidance of costs was estimated at $682 million annually ($307.4 million in direct costs, $374.3 million in indirect costs). CONCLUSIONS-: The costs of stroke care in Canada can be substantially reduced, at the same time as improving patient outcomes, with the greater use of known effective treatment modalities. © 2012 American Heart Association, Inc.

Jain S.,Queens University of Belfast | Loblaw A.,Institute of Health Policy | Loblaw A.,Odette Cancer Center | Vesprini D.,Odette Cancer Center | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Urology | Year: 2015

Purpose: We report the percentage of patients on active surveillance who had disease pathologically upgraded and factors that predict for upgrading on surveillance biopsies. Materials and Methods: Patients in our active surveillance database with at least 1 repeat prostate biopsy were included. Histological upgrading was defined as any increase in primary or secondary Gleason grade on repeat biopsy. Multivariate analysis was used to determine baseline and dynamic factors associated with Gleason upgrading. This information was used to develop a nomogram to predict for upgrading or treatment in patients electing for active surveillance. Results: Of 862 patients in our cohort 592 had 2 or more biopsies. Median followupwas 6.4 years. Of the patients 20% were intermediate risk, 0.3% were highrisk and all others were low risk. During active surveillance 31.3% of cases were upgraded. On multivariate analysis clinical stage T2, higher prostate specific antigen and higher percentage of cores involved with disease at the time of diagnosis predicted for upgrading. A total of 27 cases (15% of those upgraded) were Gleason 8 or higher at upgrading, and 62% of all 114 upgraded cases went onto have active treatment. The nomogram incorporated clinical stage, age, prostate specific antigen, core positivity and Gleason score. The concordance index was 0.61. Conclusions: In this large re-biopsy cohort with medium-term followup, most cases have not been pathologically upgraded to date. A model predicting forupgrading or radical treatment was developed which could be useful in counseling patients considering active surveillance for prostate cancer. © 2015 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc.

Aoki F.Y.,University of Manitoba | Allen U.D.,Institute of Health Policy | Stiver H.G.,University of British Columbia | Evans G.A.,Biomedical and Molecular science and Pathology and Molecular Medicine | Evans G.A.,Queens University
Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology | Year: 2012

The present article addresses the use of antiviral drugs in the management of seasonal influenza illness for the 2012/2013 season. It updates the previous document published in 2011 (1). Noteworthy guidance updates since 2011 include the following: • Seasonal influenza in 2012/2013 is predicted to be caused by two human influenza A and one influenza B strain, all of which are anticipated to remain generally susceptible to oseltamivir. • The predicted strains are A/California/7/2009 (H1N1) pdm09-like, A/Victoria/361/2011 (H3N2)-like and B/Wisconsin/1/2010-like (Yamagata lineage). All are included in the seasonal influenza vaccine and are susceptible to oseltamivir. • Swine-variant H3N2v, which has rarely caused infection in humans exposed to infected swine within the past year in the United States, is susceptible to oseltamivir. It is not included in the current seasonal influenza vaccine. • It is still considered that initiation of antiviral therapy more than 36 h to 48 h after onset of symptoms is beneficial in patients hospitalized with complicated influenza and severe illness. • Oseltamivir continues to be recommended for the treatment of influenza in pregnant women. • The use of antiviral drugs among measures to control outbreaks of influenza in closed facilities such as correctional institutions is now included in the present document. © 2012 Pulsus Group Inc.

Berndl A.,McMaster University | El-Chaar D.,University of Toronto | Murphy K.,University of Toronto | Murphy K.,Institute of Health Policy | McDonald S.,McMaster University
Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada | Year: 2014

Cervical ripening with a Foley catheter before induction of labour is a common obstetrical intervention. In this study we aimed to evaluate primarily the relationship between high or low volume Foley catheters used for cervical ripening and Caesarean section, and secondarily the relationship between Foley catheter volume, cervical ripeness, and time to delivery. We searched Medline and Embase from their inceptions with the assistance of an experienced librarian. All abstracts and complete articles were independently reviewed by two reviewers, according to predefined inclusion criteria. Six hundred forty-eight abstracts were identified, and 30 complete articles were read in full. Three articles with a total of 575 participating women met the inclusion criteria. The rate of Caesarean section with use of 80 mL Foley catheters was not significantly different from the rate using 30 mL Foley catheters (RR 0.82; 95% CI 0.48 to 1.41). A favourable cervix (which was defined heterogeneously) was more common with high volume catheters (RR 1.72; 95% CI 1.46 to 2.04), and failure to deliver in 24 hours was lower (RR 0.70; 95% CI 0.54 to 0.90). High volume Foley catheters improve the likelihood of a favourable cervix and chance of delivery in 24 hours more than low volume Foley catheters. As a more favourable cervix before induction of labour is associated with a lower rate of Caesarean section, a randomized controlled trial comparing high and low volume Foley catheters for cervical ripening using Caesarean section as the primary outcome is warranted. © 2014 Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada.

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