Takeda M.,Tokushima University |
Takeda M.,Shikoku University |
Tada T.,Institute of Health Biosciences
Journal of Medical Investigation | Year: 2014
The purpose of this study is to create and evaluate a program to enhance the mutual-assistance capability of community members to safeguard their health during time spent in evacuation shelters after a disaster. In previous research, "Supporting people in need of assistance after a disaster," the participants' awareness of the need for mutual assistance was low and their relevant knowledge and skills were insufficient. Accordingly, this became a priority in the developed program. Twenty-eight people at six different facilities participated in the program. We collected data using a questionnaire survey and group interview with the participants. After conducting the program, the participants' mean scores of mutual-assistance capability were higher than the mean pre-study scores for 25 out of 26 items. The results of group interview implied that the participants acquired [Realization of issues], and not only shared a [Sense of crisis among participants] but also felt a [Sense of responsibility for mutual assistance in the community]. We considered that our mutual-assistance training program at the time of a disaster is effective for developing mutual assistance for safeguarding health where local residents are unprepared to support those in evacuation shelters requiring assistance after a disaster.
Nakashima T.,Institute of Health Biosciences |
Nakashima T.,Otsuka Pharmaceutical Factory Inc. |
Uematsu N.,Institute of Health Biosciences |
Uematsu N.,Otsuka Pharmaceutical Factory Inc. |
And 5 more authors.
Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics | Year: 2013
Oral mucositis is a frequent and serious side effect in patients who receive radiotherapy for head and neck cancer. The purpose of this study was to develop a noninvasive and quantitative model of oral mucositis in rats, investigate the pathophysiology, and evaluate the efficacy of pharmacological interventions. Rats received a single dose of 15 Gy of X-rays to the snout after shielding of the remainder of the rat body with lead plates to protect the body from irradiation (day 0). After irradiation, the macroscopic area of tongue injury gradually increased. The total area of injury and the ulcer-like area reached a maximum on day 7 and then gradually decreased until disappearance on day 28. Expression of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines occurred transiently within 1-4 hours after irradiation and returned to a normal level at 24 hours. This expression was again observed from days 3 to 5 and increased significantly on day 7, which approximately coincided with the histologic severity of tissue damage. Subcutaneous administration of palifermin at 3 mg/kg per day for 3 consecutive days before irradiation completely prevented ulcer formation in this model. In conclusion, we established a novel model of glossitis in rats, induced by X-ray irradiation, in which biphasic elevations of expression of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines could be monitored. This model is considered useful to investigate the pathophysiology of oral mucositis and evaluate the preventive effect of pharmacological interventions on oral mucositis induced by X-ray irradiation. Copyright © 2013 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.
Matsuzaki K.,Kawasaki Medical School |
Matsuzaki K.,Institute of Health Biosciences |
Kageji T.,Institute of Health Biosciences |
Watanabe H.,Tokushima University |
And 2 more authors.
Neurologia Medico-Chirurgica | Year: 2010
A 15-month-old girl presented with a spinal pilomyxoid astrocytoma manifesting as a 3-month history of dysphagia. Magnetic resonance imaging showed an intramedullary mass of the cervical spinal cord at C1-C6 with syringobulbia. She underwent partial removal of the tumor and received postoperative chemotherapy with cisplatin and etoposide. The tumor completely responded to the treatment and has not relapsed for 64 months. Pilomyxoid astrocytoma frequently occurs in the opticohypothalamic regions but is rare in the spine. The present case suggests that surgery followed by chemotherapy with cisplatin and etoposide may be an effective therapeutic option for pilomyxoid astrocytoma of the cervical spinal cord.
Suzuki T.,DDS Research |
Ichihara M.,Institute of Health Biosciences |
Hyodo K.,DDS Research |
Yamamoto E.,DDS Research |
And 4 more authors.
International Journal of Pharmaceutics | Year: 2014
We recently demonstrated that Doxil loses its long-circulating properties when injected repeatedly at doses below 2 mg/m2 in dogs. In studies using other animal species, PEGylated liposomal doxorubicin has been reported not to induce the accelerated blood clearance (ABC) phenomenon. We investigated the issue of whether Doxil can elicit the ABC phenomenon in several species. In minipigs, the ABC phenomenon was induced at 2 mg/m2. In other animal species, the ABC phenomenon was not observed at higher doses (>2 mg/m2), but was observed at much lower doses (0.2 mg/m2). The pharmacokinetic profile of a second dose of Doxil reflected the circulating anti-PEG IgM level induced by the first dose. The ABC phenomenon was not observed at the clinically recommended DXR dose (20 mg/m2) in any animal species. These results indicate that Doxil can cause the ABC phenomenon in all animals tested, the extent of induction was dependent on the first dose of Doxil, and a higher Doxil dose lessened the ABC phenomenon. The current study results suggest that a careful study design including selection of animal species is important for preclinical studies using PEGylated liposomal formulations even if they contain anticancer drugs that suppress the host immune response. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Iba T.,Tokushima University |
Yano Y.,Tokushima University |
Umeno M.,Tokushima University |
Hinokio K.,Tokushima University |
And 4 more authors.
Zygote | Year: 2012
The aim of the present study was to determine oocyte activation and change in M-phase promoting factor (MPF) activity induced by treatment with calcium ionophore and roscovitine in comparison with those induced by treatment with roscovitine alone and treatment with calcium ionophore and puromycin in mice. Freshly ovulated oocytes obtained from 6-8-week-old mice were divided into five groups (no activation treatment; 5 μM calcium ionophore A23187; 50 μM roscovitine; 5 μM calcium ionophore and 10 μg/ml puromycin; and 5 μM calcium ionophore and 50 μM roscovitine) and were incubated for 6 h. Oocyte activation, assessed by morphological changes, and changes in MPF activity in the five groups at 0, 2, 4 and 6 h of incubation were examined. Activated oocytes were defined as oocytes with at least one pronucleus. Oocytes treated with roscovitine alone were not activated during the 6-h incubation period. All of the oocytes in the calcium ionophore with puromycin group and in the calcium ionophore with roscovitine group were activated. The percentage activity of MPF in oocytes treated with roscovitine alone was decreased after 2 h and increased after 4 h of incubation. The percentage activity of MPF in oocytes treated with calcium ionophore and roscovitine was significantly decreased with suppression of MPF activity being maintained for 6 h, and this change was similar to that in oocytes treated with calcium ionophore and puromycin. Roscovitine with calcium ionophore is effective for induction of oocyte activation through suppression of MPF activity in mice. © 2011 Copyright Cambridge University Press.
Miyoshi H.,Tokushima University |
Imura H.,Tokushima University |
Nakamura M.,Institute of Health Biosciences
Journal of Luminescence | Year: 2010
Simple method yielding new emission peaks to the X-ray phosphor and its mechanism were investigated using concentrated-dye-molecule-doped silica nanoparticles (dye-silica nanoparticles) and X-ray phosphors. The dye-silica nanoparticles were coated on the sheet of the X-ray phosphor using 20 wt% polyvinyl alcohol solution. The fluorescence of the dye-silica nanoparticle coated onto X-ray phosphor was successfully observed by X-ray irradiation. The fluorescent cascade from the X-ray-irradiated phosphor could be used in the excitation of the dye-silica nanoparticles by coating on the calcium tungstate (X-ray phosphor). The observed new fluorescence was based on the extent of the overlapping of wavelengths between the emission of the X-ray phosphor and the excitation of the dye-silica nanoparticles. The fluorescent peak of the calcium tungstate as the X-ray phosphor shifted from 434 to 425 nm. The dye-silica particle-calcium tungstate hybrid material showed new emission peaks from 543 to 601 nm due to the addition of fluorescein, rhodamine red-X, or cy5. The new emission peaks changed by the content of dye and the size of the silica nanoparticles. The fluorescence intensity ratio of the new fluorescence peaks at 543 nm against that of the X-ray phosphor depended on the fluorescent cascade from the X-ray-irradiated X-ray phosphor. It can closely match the overall emission of the phosphorous intensity screens to the sensitivity of the film allowing lower dose X-rays to obtain the same image clarity. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Tayoshi S.,Tokushima University |
Nakataki M.,Tokushima University |
Sumitani S.,Tokushima University |
Taniguchi K.,Tokushima University |
And 6 more authors.
Schizophrenia Research | Year: 2010
Gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) is thought to play a role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. High magnetic field proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) provides a reliable measurement of GABA in specific regions of the brain. This study measured GABA concentration in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and in the left basal ganglia (ltBG) in 38 patients with chronic schizophrenia and 29 healthy control subjects. There was no significant difference in GABA concentration between the schizophrenia patients and the healthy controls in either the ACC (1.36 ± 0.45 mmol/l in schizophrenia patients and 1.52 ± 0.54 mmol/l in control subjects) or the ltBG (1.13 ± 0.26 mmol/l in schizophrenia patients and 1.18 ± 0.20 mmol/l in control subjects). Among the right handed schizophrenia patients, the GABA concentration in the ltBG was significantly higher in patients taking typical antipsychotics (1.25 ± 0.24 mmol/l) than in those taking atypical antipsychotics (1.03 ± 0.24 mmol/l, p = 0.026). In the ACC, the GABA concentration was negatively correlated with the dose of the antipsychotics (rs = - 0.347, p = 0.035). In the ltBG, the GABA concentration was positively correlated with the dose of the anticholinergics (rs = 0.403, p = 0.015). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to have directly measured GABA concentrations in schizophrenia patients using 1H-MRS. Our results suggest that there are no differences in GABA concentrations in the ACC or the ltBG of schizophrenia patients compared to healthy controls. Antipsychotic medication may cause changes in GABA concentration, and atypical and typical antipsychotics may have differing effects. It is possible that medication effects conceal inherent differences in GABA concentrations between schizophrenia patients and healthy controls. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.