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Hostmark A.T.,University of Oslo | Hostmark A.T.,Institute of Health and Society | Haug A.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences
Lipids in Health and Disease | Year: 2013

Background: Since many health effects of oils rich in oleic acid (18:1, n-9) seem to be opposite those of arachidonic acid (20:4, n-6), i.e. concerning cardiovascular risk, we examined whether % 18:1 might be negatively associated with % 20:4. Methods. Fatty acid separation by gas chromatography was performed in total serum lipids of 36 male rats. Using bivariate correlations and multiple linear regressions we studied the association between oleic acid and arachidonic acid. Results: We found an inverse relationship (r = -0.885, p < 0.001; n = 36) between percentages of 18:1 and 20:4 in total lipids of rat serum, persisting when controlling for the other fatty acids measured. In a multiple linear regression model with % 20:4 as the dependent variable and percentages of the other fatty acids entered simultaneously as independents, oleic acid and linoleic acid contributed most to predict % 20:4. Per cent 20:4 correlated negatively (p< 0.01) with a Delta-9 desaturase index, i.e. the (18:1)/(18:0) ratio, and with the (20:4)/(18:2) ratio, estimating desaturases/elongase. Conclusions: Percentages of 18:1 and 20:4 seem to be inversely related and desaturase/elongase inhibition could be involved. The results might partly explain positive health effects of foods rich in oleic acid. © 2013 Høstmark and Haug; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source


Tollisen A.,University of Oslo | Sanner H.,University of Oslo | Flato B.,University of Oslo | Wahl A.K.,Institute of Health and Society
Arthritis Care and Research | Year: 2012

Objective. To compare quality of life in adults diagnosed with juvenile dermatomyositis (DM) with that of matched controls, and to analyze the association with other disease parameters in patients. Methods. Thirty-nine patients with juvenile DM (ages ≥18 years) were clinically examined and compared with 39 age-and sex-matched controls. Global and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) were assessed by the Norwegian version of the Quality of Life Scale (QOLS-N) and the Short Form 36 (SF-36), respectively. For patients, disease parameters were assessed by the Disease Activity Score (DAS), Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ), and Myositis Damage Index (MDI). Results. Compared to the controls, patients with juvenile DM assessed a median of 22.2 years (range 1.8-36.1 years) after disease onset had reduced HRQOL in general health (P = 0.009) measured by the SF-36. In patients, a moderate correlation was found between the physical component summary (PCS) score and the DAS (r s = -0.422) and MDI (r s =-0.381), and a strong correlation was found between the PCS score and the HAQ (r s = -0.516). There were no differences between patients and controls in the SF-36 mental component summary scores. Patients and controls had similar total scores of the QOLS-N, but differences existed within certain items. Conclusion. Adult patients with juvenile DM had, compared to controls, reduced HRQOL in general health measured by the SF-36, but not in the other subscales of the SF-36 or in global quality of life measured by the QOLS-N. An association was found between disease parameters and reduced HRQOL in the physical domains. © 2012, American College of Rheumatology. Source


van Reeuwijk M.,Rutgers WPF | Nahar P.,Durham University | Nahar P.,Institute of Health and Society
Reproductive Health Matters | Year: 2013

This article explores the mismatch that exists between what unmarried adolescents in Bangladesh experience, want and need in regard to their sexuality and what they receive from their society, which negatively impacts on their understanding of sexuality and their well-being. The findings provide a picture of Bangladeshi adolescents' (12-18 years) sexual feelings, experiences, behaviours, anxieties and concerns - in particular in relation to desire, pleasure, sexual power, masturbation, virginity, romantic love and dating, and arranged marriage - and how socio-sexual norms and taboos influence these. Curiosity of boys and girls about sex was driven by a need and desire to know and understand, but also because it was exciting to read about and talk about sex. Young people are not just passive recipients of adult norms and messages around sexuality, but agents who actively construe meanings and navigate between what is expected from them and what they want, need and feel themselves. Adolescents have a need for information and support - long before they ever have sex. We call for a positive, rights-based approach to sexuality education for adolescents and a focus beyond health outcomes alone to support adolescents and young people to make sense of the multiplicity of messages they encounter and reduce unnecessary feelings of guilt and anxiety. © 2013 Reproductive Health Matters. Source


Foss C.,Institute of Health and Society | Hofoss D.,Akershus University Hospital Research Center
Patient Education and Counseling | Year: 2011

Objective: The purpose of this study was to describe older hospital patients' discharge experiences on participation in the discharge planning. Methods: A sample of 254 patients aged 80+ was interviewed using a questionnaire developed by the research team. Data were collected by face-to-face interviewing during the first two weeks following patients discharge from hospital. Results: In spite of their advanced age the patients in this study did express a clear preference for participation. However, there were no significant correlation between patients' wish for participation and experienced opportunity to share decisions. Hearing ability was the only significant factor affecting the chance to participate, whereas sociodemographic factors did not significantly affect on the likelihood participation the discharge process. Conclusion: The actual practice of involving old people in the discharge process is not well developed as experienced by old patients themselves. The fact that factors like gender and education have little influence on participation in the oldest patients might be related to age; when you get old enough, old is all that is 'visible'. Practice implications: To determine the extent of elderly patients' desire to participate, one must actively look for it both through research and in the hands-on process of discharge. © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Source


Fuglenes D.,University of Oslo | Aas E.,University of Oslo | Botten G.,Institute of Health and Society | Oian P.,University of Tromso | Kristiansen I.S.,University of Oslo
American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology | Year: 2011

Objective: We sought to identify predictors of preferences for cesarean among pregnant women, and estimate how different predictors influence preferences. Study Design: This was a cross-sectional study based on the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (n = 58,881). Results: Of the study population, 6% preferred cesarean over vaginal delivery. While 2.4% of nulliparous had a strong preference for cesarean, the proportion among multiparous was 5.1%. The probability that a woman, absent potential predictors, would have a cesarean preference was similar (<2%) for both nulliparous or multiparous. In the presence of concurrent predictors such as previous cesarean, negative delivery experience, and fear of birth, the predicted probability of a cesarean request ranged from 2075%. Conclusion: The proportion of women with a strong preference for cesarean was higher among multiparous than nulliparous women, but the difference was attributable to factors such as previous cesarean or fear of delivery and not to parity per se. © 2011 Published by Mosby, Inc. Source

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