Grabovskii V.I.,Russian Academy of Sciences |
Zukert N.V.,Russian Academy of Sciences |
Korzukhin M.D.,Institute of Global Climate and Ecology
Contemporary Problems of Ecology | Year: 2016
The 2007 State Forest Inventory (SFI) data have been used at two scales of spatial resolution: the datasets of the forest regions (31) and the forest-management basic units (1900) to estimate the leafarea index (LAI, m2 m–2) of forests in Russia. The area and yield data on all 66 tree species recorded in the SFI offer the opportunity to obtain the wood specific gravity values U (m3 ha–1) for all these tree species. The conversion coefficients of yield to leaf phytomass per unit area (t m–3) and the projected specific leaf areas (SLAs) (cm2 g–1) are used to estimate the LAI. The obtained LAI values are similar to the average ground and remote-sensing estimates (the given review for July includes eighteen literature sources). The highest LAI values can be observed in the middle taiga subzone in the European part of Russia and in the Angara River regions. The LAI estimates may be used to compute the productivity of the forest ecosystems at different scales of analysis and to extrapolate the calibrated data acquired with remote control techniques. © 2016, Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.
Uvarova N.E.,Institute of Global Climate and Ecology |
Kuzovkin V.V.,Institute of Global Climate and Ecology |
Paramonov S.G.,Institute of Global Climate and Ecology |
Gytarsky M.L.,Institute of Global Climate and Ecology
Climatic Change | Year: 2014
The high quality inventory is an important step to greenhouse gas emission mitigation. The inventory quality is estimated by means of the uncertainty analysis. The level of uncertainty depends upon the reliability of activity data and the parameters used. An attempt has been made to improve the accuracy of the estimates through a shift from production-based method (IPCC Tier 1) (IPCC 2000) to enhanced combination of production-based and mass balance methods (IPCC Tier 2) (IPCC 2006) in the estimation of emissions from operations with oil that are key in the national greenhouse gas inventory of the Russian Federation. The IPCC Tier 2 (IPCC 2006) was adapted for the national conditions. The greenhouse gas emissions were calculated for 1990 to 2009 with the use of both methods. The quantitative uncertainty assessment of the calculations was performed, and the outcomes were compared. The comparison showed that the estimates made with the use of higher tier method resulted in higher accuracy and lower uncertainties (26 % respectively compared to previously derived 54 %). © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.
Insarov G.E.,Institute of Global Climate and Ecology
International Journal of Ecology and Environmental Sciences | Year: 2010
A monitoring scheme using epiphytic lichens has been developed over the last decades for several protected areas and regions in Russia and adjacent countries influenced by background air pollution and, increasingly, also by climate change. Its main objective is to detect trends in epiphytic lichen status caused by changes in background (regional and global) air pollution levels. The scheme includes: (1) a sampling protocol to assess lichen diversity, cover and frequency on tree trunks, (2) estimates of the sensitivity of lichen species to air pollution in the protected area or region, (3) determination of the Trend Detection Index (TDI) of lichen community status with the highest resolution as it relates to air pollution change detection. Confidence intervals for lichen cover and frequency can also be calculated for each species. Trend in TDI, cover and frequency can be revealed by conventional statistic methods. Decline of lichen community characteristics along a gradient of air pollution can also be quantified. On the basis of these trends, one can quantify change in a lichen species, or community state. These trends can than be used to categorize and re-asses lichen species in new red-list categories according to 2001 IUCN threat categories and criteria. Examples from montane national reserves in Russian and adjacent countries are presented. © NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF ECOLOGY, NEW DELHI.
Smith P.,University of Aberdeen |
Haberl H.,University of Vienna |
Popp A.,Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research |
Erb K.-H.,University of Vienna |
And 24 more authors.
Global Change Biology | Year: 2013
Feeding 9-10 billion people by 2050 and preventing dangerous climate change are two of the greatest challenges facing humanity. Both challenges must be met while reducing the impact of land management on ecosystem services that deliver vital goods and services, and support human health and well-being. Few studies to date have considered the interactions between these challenges. In this study we briefly outline the challenges, review the supply- and demand-side climate mitigation potential available in the Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use AFOLU sector and options for delivering food security. We briefly outline some of the synergies and trade-offs afforded by mitigation practices, before presenting an assessment of the mitigation potential possible in the AFOLU sector under possible future scenarios in which demand-side measures codeliver to aid food security. We conclude that while supply-side mitigation measures, such as changes in land management, might either enhance or negatively impact food security, demand-side mitigation measures, such as reduced waste or demand for livestock products, should benefit both food security and greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation. Demand-side measures offer a greater potential (1.5-15.6 Gt CO2-eq. yr-1) in meeting both challenges than do supply-side measures (1.5-4.3 Gt CO2-eq. yr-1 at carbon prices between 20 and 100 US$ tCO2-eq. yr-1), but given the enormity of challenges, all options need to be considered. Supply-side measures should be implemented immediately, focussing on those that allow the production of more agricultural product per unit of input. For demand-side measures, given the difficulties in their implementation and lag in their effectiveness, policy should be introduced quickly, and should aim to codeliver to other policy agenda, such as improving environmental quality or improving dietary health. These problems facing humanity in the 21st Century are extremely challenging, and policy that addresses multiple objectives is required now more than ever. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Uvarova N.E.,Institute of Global Climate and Ecology
Journal of Integrative Environmental Sciences | Year: 2012
Oil and gas is a key sector for greenhouse gas inventory of the Russian Federation represented by non-CO2 greenhouse gases methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O). The CH4 and N2O emission estimates are mainly performed with the use of default method (IPCC 2000). As a result of continuous inventory improvement, the national parameters for oil and gas sector were derived and IPCC methodology was adjusted. The parameters were developed on the basis of specific features of producing industry and the properties of oil and gas produced. These developments enabled a shift to tier 2 estimation approach (IPCC 2006). The aim of the study was to highlight the differences between both estimation methods. For this purpose, the CH4 and N2O emissions were estimated from 1990 to 2009 with the use of default (tier 1) and a combination of tier 1 and tier 2 methods. The results of the estimates were compared and their uncertainty assessed. The results of comparison showed insignificant differences in the emission profile. The uncertainty of the combined tier 1 and tier 2 estimates was lower than of those performed with the tier 1 (15% and 23%, respectively). Thus, the use of higher tier increases the reliability of the inventory for oil and gas sector. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.
PubMed | Institute of Global Climate and Ecology
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Environmental monitoring and assessment | Year: 2013
The paper considers the methodology and results of experimental determination of dry deposition and ammonia uptake by isolated plant leaves. Analytical expressions are proposed which allow a transition from rates obtained in an isolated chamber to dry ammonia deposition by standing crops leaves.
Volodin E.M.,Russian Academy of Sciences |
Kostrykin S.V.,Russian Academy of Sciences |
Ryaboshapko A.G.,Institute of Global Climate and Ecology
Atmospheric Science Letters | Year: 2011
The effect of altitude and latitude of sulfate aerosol injection into the stratosphere on climate is studied with Earth system model INMCM. The model includes the general circulation of the atmosphere and oceans as well as a sulfate aerosol component, and is used to determine the most effective injection scenario for reducing changes in temperature and precipitation at a global level and in the Arctic. © 2011 Royal Meteorological Society.