Institute of Geology and Geography

Vilnius, Lithuania

Institute of Geology and Geography

Vilnius, Lithuania
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Bogdanova S.,Lund University | Gorbatschev R.,Lund University | Skridlaite G.,Institute of Geology and Geography | Soesoo A.,Tallinn University of Technology | And 2 more authors.
Precambrian Research | Year: 2015

A comparative study of the central and southern parts of the Palaeoproterozoic Svecofennian orogen in the Baltic/Fennoscandian Shield and the platform area to the east and south of the Baltic Sea indicates that at least these parts of the orogen are built up of several NW-SE trending, 100-300. km wide tectonic megadomains separated from each other and complicated by major zones of mostly dextral shearing. The generation of these zones occurred successively between 1.86 and 1.75. Ga, concomitantly with continuing crustal accretion younging towards the southwest. Even considering the distorting presence of a number of microcontinents, this indicates the one-time existence and repeated episodic activity of a master subduction zone stepwise falling back to the present south-southwest. At 1.82-1.80. Ga, the oblique collision of protocontinents Volgo-Sarmatia and Fennoscandia interfered with the accretionary growth of the crust in the Svecofennian orogen. In the west, the system of Svecofennian tectonic domains and shear zones is delimited by 1.70-1.55. Ga orogenic belts marking the Laurentia-Greenland-Baltica margin of Columbia. Altogether, the available U-Pb zircon datings and studies of key rocks and structures in the South Baltic region allow more detailed Trans-Baltic correlation and the creation of new integrated models of the structural and tectonic evolution of the Svecofennian orogen in particular and northern Europe in general. The new findings will be important also in the continuing study of supercontinent formation and supercontinent cycles, and the drifting of Palaeoproterozoic protocontinents during the assembly of Columbia/Nuna. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Skridlaite G.,Institute of Geology and Geography | Bogdanova S.,Lund University | Taran L.,Belarussian Research Geological Exploration Institute | Baginski B.,University of Warsaw
Gondwana Research | Year: 2014

The Palaeoproterozoic lower crust, forming several belts and domains, is a major component of the crystalline basement within the large region to the southeast of the Baltic Sea in Belarus, Lithuania and Poland. Four stages of high grade metamorphism have been determined in the Western Lithuanian Granulite domain (WLG) and Belarus-Podlasie Granulite belt (BPG), the western East European Craton (EEC). We have carried out P-T studies, secondary ion mass-spectrometry (SIMS) zircon- and electron probe (EPMA) - monazite dating of peak metamorphism. The first stage occurred at 1.81-1.79. Ga under 800-900. °C and 8-10. kbar and was related to both accretionary and postcollisional tectonics in the South Baltic region, whereas the stages at 1.73-1.68. Ga (700-800. °C, 6-7. kbar), 1.62-1.58. Ga (700. °C, 4-5. kbar), and 1.52-1.50. Ga (900. °C, c. 10. kbar) can be attributed to extensional intracratonic regimes. The 1.81-1.79. Ga stage was connected both to the major Sarmatia-Fennoscandia collision and the eastward accretion, which led to the formation of Baltica (East-European Craton) during the assembly of the Columbia (Nuna) supercontinent. The later high grade events associated with intracratonic extensions and magmatism may be distal manifestations of accretionary processes along the long-lived common Laurentia-Baltica margin. The 1.52-1.50. Ga metamorphism was associated with extensive anorthosite-mangerite-charnockite-granite magmatism in already consolidated crust. © 2013 International Association for Gondwana Research.

Bagdanaviciute I.,Klaipeda University | Bagdanaviciute I.,Institute of Geology and Geography | Valiunas J.,Institute of Geology and Geography
Environmental Earth Sciences | Year: 2013

The geological environment has been heavily polluted by chemical substances over the past few decades. Pollution sources located on the earth's surface or underground have affected the quality of the environment. A significant amount of impact could be reduced if the allocation of potential pollution sources was based on an evaluation of environmental conditions. The main objective of this study was to develop a methodology for the allocation of potential pollution sources by employing GIS and multi-criteria evaluation techniques. This methodology was applied to a study area located in the eastern part of Lithuania. A GIS-based land suitability analysis was performed after identifying 16 factors concerning the geological and socio-economic environment, which were important for environmental protection, land use and spatial planning. The environmental and socio-economic factors were divided into eliminating and limiting criteria. Criteria maps based on the selected factors were compiled. Areas delineated by eliminating criteria were identified as unsuitable for development (according to national legislation). Limiting criteria were evaluated according to the suitability level, which were determined in this study considering the principles of sustainable development. The relative importance of each criterion was assessed utilising the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP). A land suitability index (LSI) was calculated and the final result of the land suitability analysis was summarized in three suitability maps (environmental, socio-economic and composite). Four suitability classes (unsuitable, least, moderately and most suitable) for the allocation of potential pollution sources in the study area were used, and the nine most suitable candidate sites were selected according to the proposed methodology. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

Mokrik R.,Vilnius University | Juodkazis V.,Vilnius University | Stuopis A.,Vilnius University | Mazeika J.,Institute of Geology and Geography
Hydrogeology Journal | Year: 2014

A steady-state groundwater flow model of three Quaternary intertill aquifers in the eastern part of Lithuania has been compiled. The distinction of separate modelled layers is based on hydraulic and isotope-hydrochemistry data criteria. 3H data were used to estimate the corrected groundwater age and were coupled with a groundwater-flow-dynamics model of the Quaternary aquifer system along a cross-section flow pathway from the Baltic Upland recharge area in eastern Lithuania towards the discharge area in the lowlands near the city of Kaunas in central Lithuania. The bicarbonate content in groundwater (214-462 mg/l) increases downgradient towards the lowland area. The other major constituents and total dissolved solids (TDS) have a trend analogous to the bicarbonate. The 14C activity of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in the groundwater ranges from 41.4 to 85.7 pMC. With aquifer-system depth, active precipitation of aqueous solution takes place by dissolving minerals of calcite and dolomite and leakage of "old" groundwater from lower aquifers; the process is also traced by lower 14C and 3H activities and by more positive δ18O values in lowland areas. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Taraskevicius R.,Institute of Geology and Geography | Zinkute R.,Institute of Geology and Geography
Baltica | Year: 2011

The overview of environmental geochemistry research at the Institute of Geology and Geography is given with description of objects, methods and aquageochemical, atmogeochemical, pedogeochemical and biogeochemical anomalies. Intensive technogenisation increases the contents of chemical elements in comparison with their background. Some of released chemical elements accumulate in the soil, sediments or biota, the other are widely spread. Each town is geochemically specific.

The article contains a discussion about the environmental character of the activities carried out at the Institute of Geology and Geography since 1959 when registration of geological objects was started and some of them were given the status of geological reserves and monuments. References to and brief descriptions of the then scientific research works are included.

Grigelis A.,Institute of Geology and Geography
Baltica | Year: 2011

Knowledge of bedrock geology of the Central Baltic Sea (CBS) developed gradually in the last decades of the 20th century. In this period, a deep seismic survey, tectonic analysis ranging over an internal structure of entrails and followed hydrocarbon prospective drilling was performed in the eastern segment of CBS. The geological systems have been subdivided into series and regional stages. At the same time marine expeditions made key point to recent sedimentation and geodynamic processes. After the 1990s international and EU-supported geological-geophysical projects were successfully performed in many aspects of the Baltic marine geology. These data enlightened the Baltic Sea history, development, present status and were used as a basis for 1:500 000 or 1:200 000, versus 1:50 000, mapping. The paper aims to present a historical viewpoint to enlighten the methodology and innovations and to evaluate the exploration of bedrock geology of the CBS as is reflected on existing regional geological maps.

Zuzevicius A.,Institute of Geology and Geography
Baltica | Year: 2010

The reconstruction of hydrogeological conditions during the Late Pleistocene and Holocene has been performed for the southern part of the Baltic Artesian Basin (BAB) situated on the slope of the Belarusian- Masurian crystalline basement. The reconstruction was accomplished modelling the freezing-and-thawing of the subsurface and migration of unfrozen water under the permafrost, which covered the whole 250-270 m thick fresh water zone before the Nemunas (Late Weichselian) glacier advance (22 000-23 000 BP). Due to anomalous high gradients (0.003-0.004) caused by glacier loading (in the north) and draining periglacial lake (in the south), the unfrozen mineralised water could fill a 10-35 km wide strip in the lower beds of the sedimentary cover at the BAB's southern margin. This can explain the current small thickness of the fresh water zone, as well as the older age of water in deeper beds and water mineralisation in the southern part of the BAB as compared to the northern part of the basin, which is in a similar geological setting.

Gelumbauskaite L.Z.,Institute of Geology and Geography
Baltica | Year: 2010

A study is focused on the Palaeo-Nemunas delta morphogenesis and development during Late Glacial and Holocene time span. Geomorphometry and morphological features of the submerged delta were recognized for the first time on the submarine Curonian (Kuršiu{ogonek}) Plateau in 1986-1992. This paper presents a pilot study applied in 2006-2008 and is based on multi-beam echo sounder and side-scan sonar images data. Two geological sections across the Palaeo-Nemunas delta are compiled from the data of core studies. Geomorphologic, sedimentological, biostratigraphical and radiocarbon AMS 14C and IR-OSL analyses suggest that Palaeo-Nemunas delta begun to develop in the palaeotopography of this area during Preboreal time and ended at the second half of Boreal. The basal residual level of the Ancylus (A2) regression phase was identified in the delta trunks at a depth of 41.3-39.9 m and dated 9.31-8.87 ka BP (8300-8000 14C kyr BP). This residual layer is overlapped by marine depositional Litorina (L1 -2 -3)--Post-Litorina complexes up 2 m thick and supported by 7.40±0.5 ka BP; 6.80±0.5 ka BP (IR-OSL, RLQG 1881-118, 1882-118); 6.87±45 ka BP (6030±2514C kyr BP); 4.66±110 ka BP (4100±25 14C kyr BP, UGAMS #03138, 03139).

Mazeikis A.,Institute of Geology and Geography
Baltica | Year: 2013

This study concerns on spatial and temporal effects of surface parameters on boundary layer meteorological fields in urban territories. Selected parameters (2-metre temperature, precipitation amount and intensity, wind speed) are important for evaluating air pollution dispersion. Study is done using Enviro-HIRLAM numerical weather prediction model with the modifications of surface parameters to reflect changes due to urbanization. The modifications were made to parameters that are directly influenced by urbanization: surface roughness, albedo and anthropogenic heat flux. Case study consists of three different dates with different conditions and two different modelling domains. Overall, nine simulation runs were done including the control ones. Comparison of control and modified model runs was used for evaluation of effects. Differences of wind speed and temperature between control and modified runs were detected and in some cases, they reach up to 1.4 °C and 2.7 m/s. In addition, spatial differences in precipitation meteorological field were observed. © Baltica 2013.

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