Institute Of Geologie Et Paleontologie

Lausanne, Switzerland

Institute Of Geologie Et Paleontologie

Lausanne, Switzerland
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Charbonnier G.,University Paris - Sud | Charbonnier G.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Puceat E.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Bayon G.,French Research Institute for Exploitation of the Sea | And 8 more authors.
Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta | Year: 2012

The Fe-Mn oxide fraction leached from deep-sea sediments has been increasingly used to reconstruct the Nd isotope composition of deep water masses, that can be used to track changes in oceanic circulation with a high temporal resolution. Application of this archive to reconstruct the Nd isotope composition of bottom seawater in shallow shelf environments remained however to be tested. Yet as the Nd isotope composition of seawater on continental margins is particularly sensitive to changes in erosional inputs, establishment of neritic seawater Nd isotope evolution around areas of deep water formation would be useful to discriminate the influence of changes in oceanic circulation and in isotopic composition of erosional inputs on the Nd isotope record of deep waters. The purpose of this study is to test the potential of Fe-Mn coatings leached from foraminifera tests to reconstruct the Nd isotope composition of seawater in shelf environments for deep-time intervals. Albian to Turonian samples from two different outcrops have been recovered, from the Paris Basin (Wissant section, northern France) and from the Western Interior Seaway (Hot Spring, South Dakota, USA), that were deposited in epicontinental seas. Rare Earth Element (REE) spectra enriched in middle REEs in the foraminifera leach at Wissant highlight the presence of Fe-Mn oxides. The similarity of the Nd isotopic signal of the Fe-Mn oxide fraction leached from foraminifera tests with that of fish teeth suggests that Fe-Mn oxides coating foraminifera can be good archives of shelf bottom seawater Nd isotopic composition. Inferred bottom shelf water Nd isotope compositions at Wissant range from -8.5 to -9.7 ε-units, about 1.5-2 ε-units higher than that of the contemporaneous local detrital fraction. At Hot Spring, linear REE spectra characterizing foraminifera leach may point to an absence of authigenic marine Fe-Mn oxide formation in this area during the Late Cenomanian-Early Turonian, consistent with dysoxic to anoxic conditions at Hot Spring, contemporaneous to an Oceanic Anoxic Event. The similarity of the Nd isotopic signal of the carbonate matrix of foraminifera with that of fish teeth suggests that it records the Nd isotope composition of bottom shelf seawater as well. Inferred bottom shelf water Nd isotope compositions at Hot Spring are quite radiogenic, between -7 and -6 ε-units, about 2.5-4 ε-units higher than that of the contemporaneous local detrital fraction. In contrast, in both sections Fe-Mn oxides leached directly from the decarbonated sediment tend to yield a less radiogenic Nd isotopic composition, typically between 0.2 and 0.8 ε-units lower, that is intermediate between that of fish teeth and of the detrital fraction. This suggests the contribution of pre-formed continental Fe-Mn oxides to the Nd isotopic signal, along with authigenic marine oxides, or a detrital contamination during leaching. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Dumitrica P.,Dennigkofenweg 33 | Dumitrica P.,Institute Of Geologie Et Paleontologie
Revue de Micropaleontologie | Year: 2011

Based on the detailed morphological study of the type species of the genus Multisphaera Nazarov and Afanasieva, the author emends the status and diagnosis of this genus and of the subfamily Multisphaerinae Nazarov and Afanasieva. He found that the initial spicule of the type species is not multi-rayed, as initially thought, but a tetrahedral spicule. Accordingly, the genus is assigned to the former tribe Tetrentactiniini Kozur and Mostler that is herein raised to the family rank and comprises all Upper Devonian to lower Permian genera with a tetrahedral initial spicule. Consequently, the subfamily Multisphaerinae is considered a junior synonym of the family Tetrentactiniidae. To better solve the taxonomic problems of this family the author compares the morphological diversity of its members with the morphological diversity of the lower Tithonian (uppermost Jurassic) tetrahedral spicule-bearing entactinarian Radiolaria occurring in the Solnhofen area, southern Germany. Although these genera have the same type of spicule as the Paleozoic ones, they seem to belong to a new family because between the lower Tithonian and the lower Permian genera there is a long time interval of about 120. Ma in which no radiolarians with a tetrahedral initial spicule have been recorded so far. This comparison shows once more the conservative character of the initial spicule and the wide morphological diversity of the extraspicular shell. © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS.

Von Raumer J.F.,University of Fribourg | Finger F.,University of Salzburg | Vesela P.,Science 37 | Stampfli G.M.,Institute Of Geologie Et Paleontologie
Terra Nova | Year: 2014

Durbachites-Vaugnerites are K-Mg-rich magmatic rocks derived from an enriched mantle source. Observed throughout the European Variscan basement, their present-day geographical distribution does not reveal any obvious plate-tectonic context. Published geochronological data show that most durbachites-vaugnerites formed around 335-340 Ma. Plotted in a Visean plate-tectonic reconstruction, the occurrences of durbachites-vaugnerites are concentrated in a hotspot like cluster in the Galatian superterrane, featuring a distinctive regional magmatic province. Reviewing the existing local studies on Variscan durbachite-vaugnerite rocks, we interpret their extensive appearance in the Visean in terms of two factors: (i) long-term mantle enrichment above early Variscan subduction systems; and (ii) melting of this enriched subcontinental mantle source during the Variscan collision stage due to thermal anomalies below the Galatian superterrane, possibly created by slab windows and and/or the sinking of the subducted Rheic slab into the mantle. The tectonic reorganization of Europe in the Late Palaeozoic and during the Alpine orogeny has torn apart and blurred this marked domain of durbachites-vaugnerites. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Godet A.,Institute Of Geologie Et Paleontologie | Godet A.,University of Neuchatel | Follmi K.B.,Institute Of Geologie Et Paleontologie | Follmi K.B.,University of Neuchatel | And 6 more authors.
Swiss Journal of Geosciences | Year: 2011

During the late Early Cretaceous, the shallow-water domains of the western Tethys are characterized by the widespread deposition of Urgonian-type carbonates rich in rudists, corals and other oligotrophic, shallow-marine organisms. In the Helvetic Alps, the Urgonian occurrences have been dated by ammonite biostratigraphy as Late Barremian and Early Aptian. For the more proximal occurrences in the western Swiss Jura, a recent age model based on bio-, chemo- and sequence stratigraphy has been proposed, which allows for an improved correlation with the Helvetic counterparts. In order to corroborate the recently proposed age model for the Jura, a set of well-preserved rhynchonellids collected from five different lithostratigraphical formations and members ("Marnes bleues d'Hauterive", "Marnes d'Uttins", basal marly layers within the "Urgonien Jaune", "Marnes de la Russille", "Urgonien Blanc") has been analysed for its strontium-isotope ratios (87Sr/86Sr). In addition, K-Ar dating was performed on well-preserved glauconite grains from two different levels ("Marnes d'Uttins" and a basal layer within the "Urgonien Jaune"). The correlation of the Sr-isotope data set with a belemnite-based, ammonite-calibrated reference curve provides an age model which is coherent with recently published ages based on calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphy and the correlation of trends in chemo- and sequence stratigraphy. K-Ar dating on well-preserved glauconite grains from the "Marnes d'Uttins" and lowermost part of the "Urgonien Jaune" delivered ages of 127. 5 ± 2. 3 and 130. 7 ± 2. 6 Ma, respectively. Whereas the age of the glauconitic level near the base of the "Urgonien Jaune" is chronostratigraphically meaningful, the K-Ar age of the "Marnes d'Uttins" appears too young relative to the presently used time scale. This may be related to rejuvenation of the K-Ar chronometer due to post-depositional Ar loss, most likely during hardground formation. The ages obtained here confirm the Late Barremian age for the onset of the Urgonian platform, an age which is conform with ages obtained in the Helvetic Alps and elsewhere along the northern Tethyan margin. © 2011 Swiss Geological Society.

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