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Asaah A.N.E.,Tokyo Institute of Technology | Yokoyama T.,Tokyo Institute of Technology | Aka F.T.,Institute of Mining and Geological Research | Usui T.,Tokyo Institute of Technology | And 9 more authors.
Chemical Geology | Year: 2015

Lake Nyos is located at the summit of a stratovolcano in the Oku Volcanic Group (OVG) along the Cameroon Volcanic Line. The sudden release of magmatic CO2 trapped at the bottom of Lake Nyos in August 1986 caused historical casualties of 1750 people and over 3000 cattle. New geochemical data of volcanic rocks from the Nyos volcano and the first available data for volcanic rocks from other maar-bearing volcanoes (Lakes Elum, Wum and Oku) in the OVG are presented and compared. Lavas from the Nyos, Elum and Wum volcanoes show similarities in major and trace elements and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopes, suggestive of a similar mantle source. However, this source is slightly different from that of the Oku volcano. The samples from Lake Oku have lower alkali, higher TiO2 and more depletion and enrichment in most incompatible trace elements than those from the Nyos, Elum and Wum volcanoes. These differences and those observed in the Sr-Nd-Pb results are consistent with a heterogeneous source for lavas in the OVG. Trace element compositions suggested the presence of garnet in the source (<6% garnet) and modelled melting results indicate <2% partial melting of the source material. Isotope data plot within the focal zone, extending towards enriched mantle 1 (EM1; e.g. Lakes Oku and Nyos samples). This indicates the involvement of at least three mantle components: depleted mid-ocean ridge basalt mantle, high-μ and EM1 components in the magmatism of the lavas studied. The contributions of these components in different proportions, originating from asthenospheric and subcontinental lithospheric mantle sources, can account for the observed variations in geochemical characteristics. The geochemical characteristics of the studied lavas indicate that the magma source need not necessarily have an abnormal CO2 concentration to pose a potential threat. Degassing of an ordinary magma chamber and the migration of gas to the bottom of the lakes through cracks and faults can lead to the accumulation of CO2 in lake bottoms. This is controlled by tectonic parameters (fractures and faults) that enhance degassing from the magma chamber to the lake bottom and physical parameters of the lake (e.g. size, depth, temperature and solubility) that control CO2 stability. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.


Tiodjio R.E.,University of Toyama | Sakatoku A.,University of Toyama | Issa,Institute of Mining and Geological Research | Fantong W.Y.,Institute of Mining and Geological Research | And 8 more authors.
Limnologica | Year: 2016

In order to assess the diversity and spatial distribution of bacterial and archaeal communities in a CO2-rich and meromictic lake, samples were collected along the water column of Lake Monoun and analyzed using PCR-DGGE and quantitative analyses of the 16S rRNA gene. The retrieved sequences were affiliated to 6 bacterial phyla and two archaeal phyla which plausible environmental functions map with the physico-chemical parameters of the lake. Unclassified sequences were also detected. This suggests heterogeneity in community composition and existence of potential candidate divisions. For instance, amongst the bacterial sequences, 18.2% matched with methanotrophic bacteria of the order methylococcales and amongst the archaeal sequences, 16.6% matched with methanogenic species of the order methanomicrobiales. Hence, evidencing the existence of methane-related prokaryotes in the lake, a finding that would play a key role in our understanding of the methane puzzle of Lake Monoun. Other groups capable of a wide range of metal and nutrients transformations were also detected, as well as those of unknown functions. The layering of microbial communities also appeared to directly or indirectly depend on oxygen availability. DGGE and qPCR analyses both suggested a scarcity of archaea in the surface samples. Furthermore, qPCR revealed that bacteria were numerically more important than archaea in all the samples. The general distribution along the water column indicated that archaeal abundance increases with depth. © 2016.


Tiodjio R.E.,University of Toyama | Sakatoku A.,University of Toyama | Nakamura A.,University of Toyama | Tanaka D.,University of Toyama | And 8 more authors.
Scientific Reports | Year: 2014

The aim of this study was to assess the microbial diversity associated with Lake Nyos, a lake with an unusual chemistry in Cameroon. Water samples were collected during the dry season on March 2013. Bacterial and archaeal communities were profiled using Polymerase Chain Reaction-Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) approach of the 16S rRNA gene. The results indicate a stratification of both communities along the water column. Altogether, the physico-chemical data and microbial sequences suggest a close correspondence of the potential microbial functions to the physico-chemical pattern of the lake. We also obtained evidence of a rich microbial diversity likely to include several novel microorganisms of environmental importance in the large unexplored microbial reservoir of Lake Nyos.


PubMed | Tokai University, University of Toyama and Institute of Mining and Geological Research
Type: | Journal: Scientific reports | Year: 2014

The aim of this study was to assess the microbial diversity associated with Lake Nyos, a lake with an unusual chemistry in Cameroon. Water samples were collected during the dry season on March 2013. Bacterial and archaeal communities were profiled using Polymerase Chain Reaction-Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) approach of the 16S rRNA gene. The results indicate a stratification of both communities along the water column. Altogether, the physico-chemical data and microbial sequences suggest a close correspondence of the potential microbial functions to the physico-chemical pattern of the lake. We also obtained evidence of a rich microbial diversity likely to include several novel microorganisms of environmental importance in the large unexplored microbial reservoir of Lake Nyos.


Asaah A.N.E.,Tokyo Institute of Technology | Yokoyama T.,Tokyo Institute of Technology | Aka F.T.,Institute of Mining and Geological Research | Usui T.,Tokyo Institute of Technology | And 5 more authors.
Geoscience Frontiers | Year: 2015

Abstract The origin and petrogenesis of the Cameroon Volcanic Line (CVL), composed of volcanoes that form on both the ocean floor and the continental crust, are difficult to understand because of the diversity, heterogeneity, and nature of available data. Major and trace elements, and Sr-Nd-Pb isotope data of volcanic rocks of the CVL spanning four decades have been compiled to reinterpret their origin and petrogenesis. Volcanic rocks range from nephelinite, basanite and alkali basalts to phonolite, trachyte and rhyolite with the presence of a compositional gap between SiO2 58-64 wt.%. Similarities in geochemical characteristics, modeled results for two component mixing, and the existence of mantle xenoliths in most mafic rocks argue against significant crustal contamination. Major and trace element evidences indicate that the melting of mantle rocks to generate the CVL magma occurred dominantly in the garnet lherzolite stability field. Melting models suggest small degree (<3%) partial melting of mantle bearing (6-10%) garnet for Mt. Etinde, the Ngaoundere Plateau and the Biu Plateau, and <5% of garnet for the oceanic sector of the CVL, Mt. Cameroon, Mt. Bambouto, Mt. Manengouba and the Oku Volcanic Group. The Sr-Nd-Pb isotope systematics suggest that mixing in various proportions of Depleted MORB Mantle (DMM) with enriched mantle 1 and 2 (EM1 and EM2) could account for the complex isotopic characteristics of the CVL lavas. Low Mg number (Mg# = 100 × MgO/(MgO + FeO)) and Ni, Cr and Co contents of the CVL mafic lavas reveal their crystallization from fractionated melts. The absence of systematic variation in Nb/Ta and Zr/Hf ratios, and Sr-Nd isotope compositions between the mafic and felsic lavas indicates progressive evolution of magmas by fractional crystallization. Trace element ratios and their plots corroborate mantle heterogeneity and reveal distinct geochemical signatures for individual the CVL volcanoes. © 2015 China University of Geosciences (Beijing) and Peking University.

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