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Kamal A.,Quaid-i-Azam University | Ali U.,Quaid-i-Azam University | Ramay M.I.,National Cleaner Production Center | Younis S.M.Z.,Institute of Geographical Information Systems | And 3 more authors.
Arabian Journal of Chemistry | Year: 2013

In this investigation, a long term monitoring of flue gas (FG) was performed, which was emerging from a point incinerator, situated in the vicinity of Rawalpindi city of Pakistan. It was aimed to analyze and correlate the spread of particulate matter, and that of exhaust gases in the surrounding residential areas. The study spanned three consecutive years of investigation. The principal component (PCA) and cluster analysis revealed two distinct groups of gasses from the exhaust i.e., Cx Hx, H2S, SO2 and CO and NOx, NO, NO2, and CO2 in PC 1 and 2, respectively. The distribution of Particulate matter 10 (PM10) remained constant over the period of three years. The concentration of PM10 remained higher than USEPA safe limits on all the sampling sites. PM10 on most of the sites correlated with the flue gasses emerging from the point source. The results indicate the influence of the flue gas exhaust on the surrounding environment, and a probable association with the public health. © 2013.

Atif I.,Institute of Geographical Information Systems | Mahboob M.A.,Institute of Geographical Information Systems | Iqbal J.,Institute of Geographical Information Systems
Journal of Himalayan Earth Sciences | Year: 2015

Snow cover area (SCA) is an important component of the solid water reservoir in the catchment. The study of snow trends is essential for managing water resources and for understanding regional climate change. Changes in the snow budget have socioeconomic and environmental implications for agriculture, water-based industries, environment, land management, water supplies; and many other areas related with snow melt water resources. To date, however, only a few scientific studies are available to analyze the Upper Indus Basin (UIB). The basic objective of this study was to map the change assessment of SCA of UIB in 2003 and 2013. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite data were retrieved for the period of 2003 and 2013. Three different digital image processing techniques, including normalized difference snow index (NDSI), satellite image classification and band threshold values were applied to assess the SCA. The results show that snow accumulation typically starts from the beginning of October and continues up to mid of March. From end March, the snow starts melting until it is reduced to a minimum in September. A comparison of snow cover of 2003 and 2013 clearly indicates that the snow accumulation period has shifted and anomaly was observed in the start of November. In 2013, snow cover decreases by almost 49% area during the period 30 Sep to 15 Oct, whereas it increases by 133% area in the first sixteen days of November i.e. 1-16 Nov, as compared to the year 2003. Overall, the correlation between the year 2003 and 2013 SCA is found to be 0.87, which is highly positive correlation. © 2015, National Centre of Excellence in Geology. All rights reserved.

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