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PubMed | French National Institute for Agricultural Research, Federal University of Minas Gerais and Institute Of Genomique Fonctionelle
Type: Journal Article | Journal: BMC genomics | Year: 2016

Propionibacterium freudenreichii is an Actinobacterium widely used in the dairy industry as a ripening culture for Swiss-type cheeses, for vitamin B12 production and some strains display probiotic properties. It is reportedly a hardy bacterium, able to survive the cheese-making process and digestive stresses.During this study, P. freudenreichii CIRM-BIA 138(alias ITG P9), which has a generation time of five hours in Yeast Extract Lactate medium at 30C under microaerophilic conditions, was incubated for 11days (9days after entry into stationary phase) in a culture medium, without any adjunct during the incubation. The carbon and free amino acids sources available in the medium, and the organic acids produced by the strain, were monitored throughout growth and survival. Although lactate (the preferred carbon source for P. freudenreichii) was exhausted three days after inoculation, the strain sustained a high population level of 9.3 logP. freudenreichii adapts its metabolism during entry into stationary phase by down-regulating oxidative phosphorylation, glycolysis, and the Wood-Werkman cycle by exploiting new nitrogen (glutamate, glycine, alanine) sources, by down-regulating the transcription, translation and secretion of protein. Utilization of polyphosphates was suggested.

Bourinet E.,Institute Of Genomique Fonctionelle | Bourinet E.,University of Calgary | Bourinet E.,University of Toronto | Bourinet E.,Carleton University | And 17 more authors.
Physiological Reviews | Year: 2014

The detection and processing of painful stimuli in afferent sensory neurons is critically dependent on a wide range of different types of voltage- and ligand-gated ion channels, including sodium, calcium, and TRP channels, to name a few. The functions of these channels include the detection of mechanical and chemical insults, the generation of action potentials and regulation of neuronal firing patterns, the initiation of neurotransmitter release at dorsal horn synapses, and the ensuing activation of spinal cord neurons that project to pain centers in the brain. Long-term changes in ion channel expression and function are thought to contribute to chronic pain states. Many of the channels involved in the afferent pain pathway are permeable to calcium ions, suggesting a role in cell signaling beyond the mere generation of electrical activity. In this article, we provide a broad overview of different calcium-permeable ion channels in the afferent pain pathway and their role in pain pathophysiology. © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

Singh M.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Goel S.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Goel S.,University of Delhi | Meeley R.B.,DuPont Pioneer | And 5 more authors.
Plant Cell | Year: 2011

Apomixis is a form of asexual reproduction through seeds in angiosperms. Apomictic plants bypass meiosis and fertilization, developing offspring that are genetically identical to their mother. In a genetic screen for maize (Zea mays) mutants mimicking aspects of apomixis, we identified a dominant mutation resulting in the formation of functional unreduced gametes. The mutant shows defects in chromatin condensation during meiosis and subsequent failure to segregate chromosomes. The mutated locus codes for AGO104, a member of the ARGONAUTE family of proteins. AGO104 accumulates specifically in somatic cells surrounding the female meiocyte, suggesting a mobile signal rather than cellautonomous control. AGO104 is necessary for non-CG methylation of centromeric and knob-repeat DNA. Digital gene expression tag profiling experiments using high-throughput sequencing show that AGO104 influences the transcription of many targets in the ovaries, with a strong effect on centromeric repeats. AGO104 is related to Arabidopsis thaliana AGO9, but while AGO9 acts to repress germ cell fate in somatic tissues, AGO104 acts to repress somatic fate in germ cells. Our findings show that female germ cell development in maize is dependent upon conserved small RNA pathways acting non-cell-autonomously in the ovule. Interfering with this repression leads to apomixis-like phenotypes in maize. © 2011 American Society of Plant Biologists.

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