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Charleroi, Belgium

Cavalli G.,Institute Of Genetique Humaine | Misteli T.,U.S. National Institutes of Health
Nature Structural and Molecular Biology | Year: 2013

Although genomes are defined by their sequence, the linear arrangement of nucleotides is only their most basic feature. A fundamental property of genomes is their topological organization in three-dimensional space in the intact cell nucleus. The application of imaging methods and genome-wide biochemical approaches, combined with functional data, is revealing the precise nature of genome topology and its regulatory functions in gene expression and genome maintenance. The emerging picture is one of extensive self-enforcing feedback between activity and spatial organization of the genome, suggestive of a self-organizing and self-perpetuating system that uses epigenetic dynamics to regulate genome function in response to regulatory cues and to propagate cell-fate memory. Copyright © 2013 Nature America, Inc. Source

Arumugam K.,University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences | Arumugam K.,Institute Of Genetique Humaine | Wang Y.,University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences | Wang Y.,National Center for Toxicological Research (NCTR) | And 3 more authors.
EMBO Journal | Year: 2010

Meiotic cell-cycle progression in progesterone-stimulated Xenopus oocytes requires that the translation of pre-existing maternal mRNAs occur in a strict temporal order. Timing of translation is regulated through elements within the mRNA 3′ untranslated region (3′ UTR), which respond to cell cycle-dependant signalling. One element that has been previously implicated in the temporal control of mRNA translation is the cytoplasmic polyadenylation element (CPE). In this study, we show that the CPE does not direct early mRNA translation. Rather, early translation is directed through specific early factors, including the Musashi-binding element (MBE) and the MBE-binding protein, Musashi. Our findings indicate that although the cyclin B5 3′ UTR contains both CPEs and an MBE, the MBE is the critical regulator of early translation. The cyclin B2 3′ UTR contains CPEs, but lacks an MBE and is translationally activated late in maturation. Finally, utilizing antisense oligonucleotides to attenuate endogenous Musashi synthesis, we show that Musashi is critical for the initiation of early class mRNA translation and for the subsequent activation of CPE-dependant mRNA translation. © 2010 European Molecular Biology Organization. Source

Pappalardo F.,National Research Council Italy | Pappalardo F.,University of Catania | Lefranc M.-P.,Institute Of Genetique Humaine | Lollini P.-L.,University of Bologna | Motta S.,University of Catania
Immunome Research | Year: 2010

Background. Biology is moving fast toward the virtuous circle of other disciplines: from data to quantitative modeling and back to data. Models are usually developed by mathematicians, physicists, and computer scientists to translate qualitative or semi-quantitative biological knowledge into a quantitative approach. To eliminate semantic confusion between biology and other disciplines, it is necessary to have a list of the most important and frequently used concepts coherently defined. Results. We propose a novel paradigm for generating new concepts for an ontology, starting from model rather than developing a database. We apply that approach to generate concepts for cell and molecule interaction starting from an agent based model. This effort provides a solid infrastructure that is useful to overcome the semantic ambiguities that arise between biologists and mathematicians, physicists, and computer scientists, when they interact in a multidisciplinary field. Conclusions. This effort represents the first attempt at linking molecule ontology with cell ontology, in IMGT-ONTOLOGY, the well established ontology in immunogenetics and immunoinformatics, and a paradigm for life science biology. With the increasing use of models in biology and medicine, the need to link different levels, from molecules to cells to tissues and organs, is increasingly important. © 2010 Pappalardo et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Talotta F.,CNR Institute of Neuroscience | Mega T.,CNR Institute of Neuroscience | Mega T.,University of Catanzaro | Bossis G.,CNR Institute of Neuroscience | And 6 more authors.
Oncogene | Year: 2010

Multiple tumorigenic pathways converge on the activating protein-1 (AP-1) family of dimeric transcription complexes by affecting transcription, mRNA decay, posttranslational modifications, as well as stability of its JUN and FOS components. Several mechanisms have been implicated in the phosphorylation-and ubiquitylation-dependent control of c-Jun protein stability. Although its dimer composition has a major role in the regulation of AP-1, little is known about the influence of heterodimerization partners on the half-life of c-Jun. The FOS family member Fra-1 is overexpressed in various tumors and cancer cell lines wherein it controls motility, invasiveness, cell survival and cell division. Oncogene-induced accumulation of Fra-1 results from both increased transcription and phosphorylation-dependent stabilization of the protein. In this report, we describe a novel role of Fra-1 as a posttranslational regulator of c-Jun. By using both constitutively and inducible transformed rat thyroid cell lines, we found that c-Jun is stabilized in response to RAS oncoprotein expression. This stabilization requires the activity of the extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK) pathway, along with c-Jun heterodimerization with Fra-1. In particular, heterodimerization with Fra-1 inhibits c-Jun breakdown by a mechanism dependent on the phosphorylation of the Fra-1 C-terminal domain that positively controls the stability of the protein in response to ERK signaling. Therefore, Fra-1 modulates AP-1 dimer composition by promoting the accumulation of c-Jun in response to oncogenic RAS signaling. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved. Source

Burkovics P.,Masaryk University | Burkovics P.,Hungarian Academy of Sciences | Sebesta M.,Masaryk University | Sisakova A.,Masaryk University | And 12 more authors.
EMBO Journal | Year: 2013

Completion of DNA replication needs to be ensured even when challenged with fork progression problems or DNA damage. PCNA and its modifications constitute a molecular switch to control distinct repair pathways. In yeast, SUMOylated PCNA (S-PCNA) recruits Srs2 to sites of replication where Srs2 can disrupt Rad51 filaments and prevent homologous recombination (HR). We report here an unexpected additional mechanism by which S-PCNA and Srs2 block the synthesis-dependent extension of a recombination intermediate, thus limiting its potentially hazardous resolution in association with a cross-over. This new Srs2 activity requires the SUMO interaction motif at its C-terminus, but neither its translocase activity nor its interaction with Rad51. Srs2 binding to S-PCNA dissociates Polδ and Polη from the repair synthesis machinery, thus revealing a novel regulatory mechanism controlling spontaneous genome rearrangements. Our results suggest that cycling cells use the Siz1-dependent SUMOylation of PCNA to limit the extension of repair synthesis during template switch or HR and attenuate reciprocal DNA strand exchanges to maintain genome stability. © 2013 European Molecular Biology Organization. Source

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