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Saint-André-lez-Lille, France

Touil Y.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Zuliani T.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Wolowczuk I.,Institute Pasteur Of Lille | Kuranda K.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | And 11 more authors.
Stem Cells

Melanoma is one of the most aggressive and extremely resistant to conventional therapies neoplasms. Recently, cellular resistance was linked to the cancer stem cell phenotype, still controversial and not well-defined. In this study, we used a Rhodamine 123 (Rh123) exclusion assay to functionally identify stem-like cells in metastatic human melanomas and melanoma cell lines. We demonstrate that a small subset of Rh123-low-retention (Rh123low) cells is enriched for stem cell-like activities, including the ability to self-renew and produce nonstem Rh123high progeny and to form melanospheres, recapitulating the phenotypic profile of the parental tumor. Rh123low cells are relatively quiescent and chemoresistant. At the molecular level, we show that melanoma Rh123low cells overexpress HIF1α, pluripotency factor OCT4, and the ABCB5 marker of melanoma stem cells and downregulate the expression of Cyclin D1 and CDK4. Interestingly, a short treatment with LY294002, an inhibitor of the PI3K/AKT pathway, specifically reverts a subset of Rh123high cells to the Rh123 low phenotype, whereas treatment with inhibitors of mammalian target of rapamycin, phosphatase and tensin homolog or mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling does not. This phenotypic switching was associated with reduced levels of the HIF1α transcript and an increase in the level of phosphorylated nuclear FOXO3a psreferentially in Rh123low cells. Moreover, the Rh123low cells became less quiescent and displayed a significant increase in their melanosphere- forming ability. All the above indicates that the Rh123low melanoma stem cell pool is composed of cycling and quiescent cells and that the PI3K/AKT signaling while maintaining the quiescence of Rh123low G0 cells promotes the exit of cycling cells from the stem cell compartment. © AlphaMed Press. Source

Migliavacca E.,University of Lausanne | Migliavacca E.,Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics | Golzio C.,Duke University | Mannik K.,University of Lausanne | And 27 more authors.
American Journal of Human Genetics

The 16p11.2 600 kb copy-number variants (CNVs) are associated with mirror phenotypes on BMI, head circumference, and brain volume and represent frequent genetic lesions in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and schizophrenia. Here we interrogated the transcriptome of individuals carrying reciprocal 16p11.2 CNVs. Transcript perturbations correlated with clinical endophenotypes and were enriched for genes associated with ASDs, abnormalities of head size, and ciliopathies. Ciliary gene expression was also perturbed in orthologous mouse models, raising the possibility that ciliary dysfunction contributes to 16p11.2 pathologies. In support of this hypothesis, we found structural ciliary defects in the CA1 hippocampal region of 16p11.2 duplication mice. Moreover, by using an established zebrafish model, we show genetic interaction between KCTD13, a key driver of the mirrored neuroanatomical phenotypes of the 16p11.2 CNV, and ciliopathy-associated genes. Overexpression of BBS7 rescues head size and neuroanatomical defects of kctd13 morphants, whereas suppression or overexpression of CEP290 rescues phenotypes induced by KCTD13 under- or overexpression, respectively. Our data suggest that dysregulation of ciliopathy genes contributes to the clinical phenotypes of these CNVs. © 2015 by The American Society of Human Genetics. All rights reserved. Source

Demeer B.,CHRU | Andrieux J.,Institute Of Genetique Medicale | Receveur A.,Laboratoire Of Cytogenetique | Morin G.,CHRU | And 11 more authors.
European Journal of Medical Genetics

The introduction of molecular karyotyping technologies into the diagnostic work-up of patients with congenital disorders permitted the identification and delineation of novel microdeletion and microduplication syndromes. Interstitial 16p13.3 duplication, encompassing the CREBBP gene, which is mutated or deleted in the Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome, have been proposed to cause a recognisable syndrome with variable intellectual disability, normal growth, mild facial dysmorphism, mild anomalies of the extremities, and occasional findings such as developmental defects of the heart, genitalia, palate or the eyes. We here report the phenotypic and genotypic delineation of 9 patients carrying a submicroscopic 16p13.3 duplication, including the smallest 16p13.3 duplication reported so far. Careful clinical assessment confirms the distinctive clinical phenotype and also defines frequent associated features : marked speech problems, frequent ocular region involvement with upslanting of the eyes, narrow palpebral fissures, ptosis and strabismus, frequent proximal implantation of thumbs, cleft palate/bifid uvula and inguinal hernia. It also confirms that CREBBP is the critical gene involved in the duplication 16p13.3 syndrome. © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. Source

Asadollahi R.,University of Zurich | Oneda B.,University of Zurich | Sheth F.,FRIGEs Institute of Human Genetics | Azzarello-Burri S.,University of Zurich | And 9 more authors.
European Journal of Human Genetics

A chromosomal balanced translocation disrupting the MED13L (Mediator complex subunit13-like) gene, encoding a subunit of the Mediator complex, was previously associated with transposition of the great arteries (TGA) and intellectual disability (ID), and led to the identification of missense mutations in three patients with isolated TGA. Recently, a homozygous missense mutation in MED13L was found in two siblings with non-syndromic ID from a consanguineous family. Here, we describe for the first time, three patients with copy number changes affecting MED13L and delineate a recognizable MED13L haploinsufficiency syndrome. Using high resolution molecular karyotyping, we identified two intragenic de novo frameshift deletions, likely resulting in haploinsufficiency, in two patients with a similar phenotype of hypotonia, moderate ID, conotruncal heart defect and facial anomalies. In both, Sanger sequencing of MED13L did not reveal any pathogenic mutation and exome sequencing in one patient showed no evidence for a non-allelic second hit. A further patient with hypotonia, learning difficulties and perimembranous VSD showed a 1 Mb de novo triplication in 12q24.2, including MED13L and MAP1LC3B2. Our findings show that MED13L haploinsufficiency in contrast to the previously observed missense mutations cause a distinct syndromic phenotype. Additionally, a MED13L copy number gain results in a milder phenotype. The clinical features suggesting a neurocristopathy may be explained by animal model studies indicating involvement of the Mediator complex subunit 13 in neural crest induction. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited. Source

Becker K.,TU Dresden | Di Donato N.,TU Dresden | Holder-Espinasse M.,Service de Genetique Clinique | Andrieux J.,Institute Of Genetique Medicale | And 12 more authors.
European Journal of Medical Genetics

Interstitial 6q deletions can cause a variable phenotype depending on the size and location of the deletion. 6q14 deletions have been associated with intellectual disability and a distinct pattern of minor anomalies, including upslanted palpebral fissures with epicanthal folds, a short nose with broad nasal tip, anteverted nares, long philtrum, and thin upper lip. In this study we describe two patients with overlapping 6q14 deletions presenting with developmental delay and characteristic dysmorphism. Molecular karyotyping using array CGH analysis revealed a de novo 8.9 Mb deletion at 6q14.1-q14.3 and a de novo 11.3 Mb deletion at 6q12.1-6q14.1, respectively. We provide a review of the clinical features of twelve other patients with 6q14 deletions detected by array CGH analysis. By assessing all reported data we could not identify a single common region of deletion. Possible candidate genes in 6q14 for intellectual disability might be FILIP1, MYO6, HTR1B, and SNX14. © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. Source

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