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Eltschinger S.,University of Geneva | Eltschinger S.,IGE3 Institute of Genetics and Genomics of Geneva | Loewith R.,University of Geneva | Loewith R.,IGE3 Institute of Genetics and Genomics of Geneva | Loewith R.,National Center for Competence in Research in Chemical Biology
Trends in Cell Biology | Year: 2016

The Target of Rapamycin (TOR) is a conserved serine/threonine (ser/thr) kinase that functions in two, distinct, multiprotein complexes called TORC1 and TORC2. Each complex regulates different aspects of eukaryote growth: TORC1 regulates cell volume and/or mass by influencing protein synthesis and turnover, while TORC2, as detailed in this review, regulates cell surface area by influencing lipid production and intracellular turgor. TOR complexes function in feedback loops, implying that downstream effectors are also likely to be involved in upstream regulation. In this regard, the notion that TORCs function primarily as mediators of cellular and organismal homeostasis is fundamentally different from the current, predominate view of TOR as a direct transducer of extracellular biotic and abiotic signals. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Rosa A.,University of Trento | Chande A.,University of Trento | Ziglio S.,University of Trento | De Sanctis V.,University of Trento | And 9 more authors.
Nature | Year: 2015

HIV-1 Nef, a protein important for the development of AIDS, has well-characterized effects on host membrane trafficking and receptor downregulation. By an unidentified mechanism, Nef increases the intrinsic infectivity of HIV-1 virions in a host-cell-dependent manner. Here we identify the host transmembrane protein SERINC5, and to a lesser extent SERINC3, as a potent inhibitor of HIV-1 particle infectivity that is counteracted by Nef. SERINC5 localizes to the plasma membrane, where it is efficiently incorporated into budding HIV-1 virions and impairs subsequent virion penetration of susceptible target cells. Nef redirects SERINC5 to a Rab7-positive endosomal compartment and thereby excludes it from HIV-1 particles. The ability to counteract SERINC5 was conserved in Nef encoded by diverse primate immunodeficiency viruses, as well as in the structurally unrelated glycosylated Gag from murine leukaemia virus. These examples of functional conservation and convergent evolution emphasize the fundamental importance of SERINC5 as a potent anti-retroviral factor. © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited.

Nikolaev S.I.,University of Geneva | Garieri M.,University of Geneva | Santoni F.,University of Geneva | Falconnet E.,University of Geneva | And 13 more authors.
Nature Communications | Year: 2014

Children with Down syndrome (DS) and acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) have poorer survival and more relapses than non-DS children with ALL, highlighting an urgent need for deeper mechanistic understanding of DS-ALL. Here, using full-exome or cancer genes-targeted sequencing of 42 ALL samples from 39 DS patients, we uncover driver mutations in RAS, (KRAS and NRAS) recurring to a similar extent (15/42) as JAK2 (12/42) mutations or P2RY8-CRLF2 fusions (14/42). RAS mutations are almost completely mutually exclusive with JAK2 mutations (P=0.016), driving a combined total of two-thirds of analysed cases. Clonal architecture analysis reveals that both RAS and JAK2 drove sub-clonal expansions primarily initiated by CRLF2 rearrangements, and/or mutations in chromatin remodellers and lymphocyte differentiation factors. Remarkably, in 2/3 relapsed cases, there is a switch from a primary JAK2-or PTPN11-mutated sub-clone to a RAS-mutated sub-clone in relapse. These results provide important new insights informing the patient stratification strategies for targeted therapeutic approaches for DS-ALL. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited.

Sailani M.R.,University of Geneva | Makrythanasis P.,University of Geneva | Valsesia A.,University of Lausanne | Valsesia A.,Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research | And 37 more authors.
Genome Research | Year: 2013

Congenital heart defect (CHD) occurs in 40% of Down syndrome (DS) cases. While carrying three copies of chromosome 21 increases the risk for CHD, trisomy 21 itself is not sufficient to cause CHD. Thus, additional genetic variation and/or environmental factors could contribute to the CHD risk. Here we report genomic variations that in oncert with trisomy 21, determine the risk for CHD in DS. This case-control GWAS includes 187 DS with CHD (AVSD = 69, ASD = 53, VSD = 65) as cases, and 151 DS without CHD as controls. Chromosome 21-specific association studies revealed rs2832616 and rs1943950 as CHD risk alleles (adjusted genotypic P-values < 0.05). These signals were confirmed in a replication cohort of 92 DS-CHD cases and 80 DS-without CHD (nominal P-value 0.0022). Furthermore, CNV analyses using a customized chromosome 21 aCGH of 135K probes in 55 DS-AVSD and 53 DS-without CHD revealed three CNV regions associated with AVSD risk (FDR ≤ 0.05). Two of these regions that are located within the previously identified CHD region on chromosome 21 were further confirmed in a replication study of 49 DS-AVSD and 45 DS- without CHD (FDR ≤ 0.05). One of these CNVs maps near the RIPK4 gene, and the second includes the ZBTB21 (previously ZNF295) gene, highlighting the potential role of these genes in the pathogenesis of CHD in DS. We propose that the genetic architecture of the CHD risk of DS is complex and includes trisomy 21, and SNP and CNV variations in chromosome 21. In addition, a yetunidentified genetic variation in the rest of the genome may contribute to this complex genetic architecture. © 2013, Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

Gannage-Yared M.-H.,Saint - Joseph University | Makrythanasis P.,University of Geneva | Chouery E.,Saint - Joseph University | Sobacchi C.,CNR Institute of Neuroscience | And 9 more authors.
Bone | Year: 2014

Introduction: Hypophosphatemic rickets (HR) comprises a rare group of inherited diseases. Very recently, mutations in the dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1) gene were identified in patients with an extremely rare autosomal recessive form of HR (ARHR). To date, very few cases of these mutations were reported. Materials and methods: A Lebanese consanguineous family with 2 affected sisters was studied. Patients aged 45 and 47 years old presented with short stature, severe genu varum, cranial hyperostosis and a very high bone density that led to a diagnosis of a familial sclerosing bone dysplasia. Molecular analysis of known genes involved in osteopetrosis showed normal results. A combination of genotyping and exome sequencing was performed in order to elucidate the genetic basis of this pathology. Results: Biochemical analysis was consistent with normal serum calcium and 1-25(OH)2D levels, low to normal serum phosphorus and elevated PTH values. Serum c-terminal FGF-23 was elevated in one of the two patients. A homozygous mutation disrupting the initiation codon of the DMP1 gene (OMIM 600980), NM_001079911.2: c.1A>G, p.Met1Val, was identified by exome sequencing and confirmed by Sanger sequencing. Conclusion: We report here a family of ARHR secondary to a DMP1 mutation located in the first coding exon of the gene. Our cases show that some ARHR cases may develop with age an unaccountable increase in bone density and bone overgrowth. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

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