Institute of Genetics and Genomics in Geneva

Genève, Switzerland

Institute of Genetics and Genomics in Geneva

Genève, Switzerland
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Olcese C.,University of Geneva | Olcese C.,University of Ferrara | Patel M.P.,University College London | Shoemark A.,Royal Brompton Hospital | And 49 more authors.
Nature Communications | Year: 2017

By moving essential body fluids and molecules, motile cilia and flagella govern respiratory mucociliary clearance, laterality determination and the transport of gametes and cerebrospinal fluid. Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is an autosomal recessive disorder frequently caused by non-assembly of dynein arm motors into cilia and flagella axonemes. Before their import into cilia and flagella, multi-subunit axonemal dynein arms are thought to be stabilized and pre-assembled in the cytoplasm through a DNAAF2-DNAAF4-HSP90 complex akin to the HSP90 co-chaperone R2TP complex. Here, we demonstrate that large genomic deletions as well as point mutations involving PIH1D3 are responsible for an X-linked form of PCD causing disruption of early axonemal dynein assembly. We propose that PIH1D3, a protein that emerges as a new player of the cytoplasmic pre-assembly pathway, is part of a complementary conserved R2TP-like HSP90 co-chaperone complex, the loss of which affects assembly of a subset of inner arm dyneins. © The Author(s) 2017.

Fort A.,University of Geneva | Panousis N.I.,University of Geneva | Panousis N.I.,Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics | Panousis N.I.,Institute of Genetics and Genomics in Geneva | And 13 more authors.
Bioinformatics | Year: 2017

Motivation: Large genomic datasets combining genotype and sequence data, such as for expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) detection, require perfect matching between both data types. Results: We described here MBV (Match BAM to VCF); a method to quickly solve sample mislabeling and detect cross-sample contamination and PCR amplification bias. Availability and Implementation:MBV is implemented in C ++ as an independent component of the QTLtools software package, the binary and source codes are freely available at © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

Andrianova M.A.,Russian Academy of Sciences | Bazykin G.A.,Russian Academy of Sciences | Nikolaev S.I.,University of Geneva | Nikolaev S.I.,Institute of Genetics and Genomics in Geneva | Seplyarskiy V.B.,Harvard University
Genome Research | Year: 2017

Mismatch repair (MMR) is one of the main systems maintaining fidelity of replication. Differences in correction of errors produced during replication of the leading and the lagging DNA strands were reported in yeast and in human cancers, but the causes of these differences remain unclear. Here, we analyze data on human cancers with somatic mutations in two of the major DNA polymerases, delta and epsilon, that replicate the genome. We show that these cancers demonstrate a substantial asymmetry of the mutations between the leading and the lagging strands. The direction of this asymmetry is the opposite between cancers with mutated polymerases delta and epsilon, consistent with the role of these polymerases in replication of the lagging and the leading strands in human cells, respectively. Moreover, the direction of strand asymmetry observed in cancers with mutated polymerase delta is similar to that observed in MMR-deficient cancers. Together, these data indicate that polymerase delta (possibly together with polymerase alpha) contributes more mismatches during replication than its leading-strand counterpart, polymerase epsilon; that most of these mismatches are repaired by the MMR system; and that MMR repairs about three times more mismatches produced in cells during lagging strand replication compared with the leading strand. © 2017 Andrianova et al.

Fish R.J.,University of Geneva | Fish R.J.,Institute of Genetics and Genomics in Geneva | Di Sanza C.,University of Geneva | Di Sanza C.,Institute of Genetics and Genomics in Geneva | And 2 more authors.
Blood | Year: 2014

Mutations in the human fibrinogen genes can lead to the absence of circulating fibrinogen and cause congenital afibrinogenemia. This rare bleeding disorder is associated with a variable phenotype, which may be influenced by environment and genotype. Here, we present a zebrafish model of afibrinogenemia. We introduced targeted mutations into the zebrafish fga gene using zinc finger nuclease technology. Animals carrying 3 distinct frameshift mutations in fga were raised and bred to produce homozygous mutants. Using a panel of anti-zebrafish fibrinogen antibodies, fibrinogen was undetectable in plasma preparations from homozygous mutant fish. We observed hemorrhaging in fga mutants and reduced survival compared with control animals. This model will now serve in the search for afibrinogenemia modifying genes or agents and, to our knowledge, is the first transmissible zebrafish model of a defined human bleeding disorder. © 2014 by The American Society of Hematology.

Seplyarskiy V.B.,Russian National Research Medical University | Soldatov R.A.,Russian Academy of Sciences | Popadin K.Y.,University of Geneva | Popadin K.Y.,Institute of Genetics and Genomics in Geneva | And 5 more authors.
Genome Research | Year: 2016

APOBEC3A and APOBEC3B, cytidine deaminases of the APOBEC family, are among the main factors causing mutations in human cancers. APOBEC deaminates cytosines in single-stranded DNA (ssDNA). A fraction of the APOBEC-induced mutations occur as clusters ("kataegis") in single-stranded DNA produced during repair of double-stranded breaks (DSBs). However, the properties of the remaining 87% of nonclustered APOBEC-induced mutations, the source and the genomic distribution of the ssDNA where they occur, are largely unknown. By analyzing genomic and exomic cancer databases, we show that >33% of dispersed APOBEC-induced mutations occur on the lagging strand during DNA replication, thus unraveling the major source of ssDNA targeted by APOBEC in cancer. Although methylated cytosine is generally more mutation-prone than nonmethylated cytosine, we report that methylation reduces the rate of APOBEC-induced mutations by a factor of roughly two. Finally, we show that in cancers with extensive APOBEC-induced mutagenesis, there is almost no increase in mutation rates in late replicating regions (contrary to other cancers). Because late-replicating regions are depleted in exons, this results in a 1.3-fold higher fraction of mutations residing within exons in such cancers. This study provides novel insight into the APOBEC-induced mutagenesis and describes the peculiarity of the mutational processes in cancers with the signature of APOBEC-induced mutations. © 2016 Seplyarskiy et al.

Popadin K.Y.,University of Geneva | Popadin K.Y.,Institute of Genetics and Genomics in Geneva | Popadin K.Y.,Russian Academy of Sciences | Gutierrez-Arcelus M.,University of Geneva | And 29 more authors.
American Journal of Human Genetics | Year: 2014

Gene expression levels can be subject to selection. We hypothesized that the age of gene origin is associated with expression constraints, given that it affects the level of gene integration into the functional cellular environment. By studying the genetic variation affecting gene expression levels (cis expression quantitative trait loci [cis-eQTLs]) and protein levels (cis protein QTLs [cis-pQTLs]), we determined that young, primate-specific genes are enriched in cis-eQTLs and cis-pQTLs. Compared to cis-eQTLs of old genes originating before the zebrafish divergence, cis-eQTLs of young genes have a higher effect size, are located closer to the transcription start site, are more significant, and tend to influence genes in multiple tissues and populations. These results suggest that the expression constraint of each gene increases throughout its lifespan. We also detected a positive correlation between expression constraints (approximated by cis-eQTL properties) and coding constraints (approximated by Ka/Ks) and observed that this correlation might be driven by gene age. To uncover factors associated with the increase in gene-age-related expression constraints, we demonstrated that gene connectivity, gene involvement in complex regulatory networks, gene haploinsufficiency, and the strength of posttranscriptional regulation increase with gene age. We also observed an increase in heritability of gene expression levels with age, implying a reduction of the environmental component. In summary, we show that gene age shapes key gene properties during evolution and is therefore an important component of genome function. © 2014 The American Society of Human Genetics.

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