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Badr H.A.,Zagazig University | AlSadek D.M.M.,Zagazig University | Mathew M.P.,Johns Hopkins University | Li C.-Z.,Florida International University | And 3 more authors.
Biomaterials | Year: 2015

Cancer is characterized by abnormal energy metabolism shaped by nutrient deprivation that malignant cells experience during various stages of tumor development. This study investigated the response of nutrient-deprived cancer cells and their non-malignant counterparts to sialic acid supplementation and found that cells utilize negligible amounts of this sugar for energy. Instead cells use sialic acid to maintain cell surface glycosylation through complementary mechanisms. First, levels of key metabolites (e.g., UDP-GlcNAc and CMP-Neu5Ac) required for glycan biosynthesis are maintained or enhanced upon Neu5Ac supplementation. In concert, sialyltransferase expression increased at both the mRNA and protein levels, which facilitated increased sialylation in biochemical assays that measure sialyltransferase activity as well as at the whole cell level. In the course of these experiments, several important differences emerged that differentiated the cancer cells from their normal counterparts including resistant to sialic acid-mediated energy depletion, consistently more robust sialic acid-mediated glycan display, and distinctive cell surface vs. internal vesicle display of newly-produced sialoglycans. Finally, the impact of sialic acid supplementation on specific markers implicated in cancer progression was demonstrated by measuring levels of expression and sialylation of EGFR1 and MUC1 as well as the corresponding function of sialic acid-supplemented cells in migration assays. These findings both provide fundamental insight into the biological basis of sialic acid supplementation of nutrient-deprived cancer cells and open the door to the development of diagnostic and prognostic tools. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Dulik M.C.,University of Pennsylvania | Zhadanov S.I.,University of Pennsylvania | Zhadanov S.I.,RAS Institute of Cytology and Genetics | Osipova L.P.,RAS Institute of Cytology and Genetics | And 8 more authors.
American Journal of Human Genetics | Year: 2012

The Altai region of southern Siberia has played a critical role in the peopling of northern Asia as an entry point into Siberia and a possible homeland for ancestral Native Americans. It has an old and rich history because humans have inhabited this area since the Paleolithic. Today, the Altai region is home to numerous Turkic-speaking ethnic groups, which have been divided into northern and southern clusters based on linguistic, cultural, and anthropological traits. To untangle Altaian genetic histories, we analyzed mtDNA and Y chromosome variation in northern and southern Altaian populations. All mtDNAs were assayed by PCR-RFLP analysis and control region sequencing, and the nonrecombining portion of the Y chromosome was scored for more than 100 biallelic markers and 17 Y-STRs. Based on these data, we noted differences in the origin and population history of Altaian ethnic groups, with northern Altaians appearing more like Yeniseian, Ugric, and Samoyedic speakers to the north, and southern Altaians having greater affinities to other Turkic speaking populations of southern Siberia and Central Asia. Moreover, high-resolution analysis of Y chromosome haplogroup Q has allowed us to reshape the phylogeny of this branch, making connections between populations of the New World and Old World more apparent and demonstrating that southern Altaians and Native Americans share a recent common ancestor. These results greatly enhance our understanding of the peopling of Siberia and the Americas. © 2012 The American Society of Human Genetics. Source

Djansugurova L.B.,Institute of General Genetics and Cytology
Russian Journal of Developmental Biology | Year: 2011

Data on involvement of nitric oxide in apoptosis are contradictory. The balance between anti- and proapoptotic activities of nitric oxide depends on many factors, including its concentration in a tissue and interactions with other regulators of apoptosis. This paper describes the results of a series of experiments on the effect of nitric oxide donors and inhibitors as well as dNOS1 and dNOS4 transgenes on the apoptosis on drosophila Lobe RSV mutant strain and wild-type strain Oregon R. It has been shown that a high nitric oxide content in cells is able to inhibit antiapoptotic effect of HSP70 and stimulate apoptosis, possibly, via the grim-mediated apoptotic pathway. Moreover, long-term action of a high nitric oxide concentration during the entire development more efficiently stimulates the proapoptotic genes as compared with short-term action of this agent. © 2011 Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. Source

Vsevolodov E.B.,Institute of General Genetics and Cytology | Golichenkov V.A.,Moscow State University | Latypov I.F.,Institute of General Genetics and Cytology
Russian Journal of Developmental Biology | Year: 2014

The structure, origin, and migration of outer sheath cells of the hair follicles of domestic sheep were studied by electron microscopic, autoradiographic, and histochemical (glycogen) methods in order to understand the role of this layer in hair morphogenesis. We demonstrated that the cells of the outer layers of the outer sheath interpose into the inner “companion” layer of the outer sheath. Although this process takes place all along the hair follicle from the lower bulb up to the sebaceous glands orifices, it mainly takes place over the bulb. Labeled cells interposed into the companion layer reach sebaceous glands orifices more than 24 h faster than labeled cells of the inner sheath and hair, because these cells included the label not in the bulb cambium (as hair and inner sheath) but over the bulb, and from this point they start movement. Interposition of cells into the companion layer must cause increase of its volume and additional volume supposed to be led away into the pillar canal around the hair near the sebaceous glands orifices. This can provide the mechanism of the hair and inner sheath promotion to sebaceous gland orifices. © 2014, Pleiades Publishing, Inc. Source

Badr H.A.,Al-Farabi Kazakh National University | Badr H.A.,Institute of General Genetics and Cytology | Badr H.A.,Florida International University | Badr H.A.,Zagazig University | And 6 more authors.
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology | Year: 2013

The terminal monosaccharide of glycoconjugates on a eukaryotic cell surface is typically a sialic acid (Neu5Ac). Increased sialylation usually indicates progression and poor prognosis of most carcinomas. Here, we utilize two human mammary epithelial cell lines, HB4A (breast normal cells) and T47D (breast cancer cells), as a model system to demonstrate differential surface glycans when treated with sialic acid under nutrient deprivation. Under a starved condition, sialic acid treatment of both cells resulted in increased activities of α2→3/6 sialyltransferases as demonstrated by solid phase assay using lectin binding. However, a very strong Maackia amurensis agglutinin I (MAL-I) staining on the membrane of sialic acid-treated T47D cells was observed, indicating an increase of Neu5Acα2→3Gal on the cell surface. To our knowledge, this is a first report showing the utility of lectins, particularly MAL-I, as a means to discriminate between normal and cancer cells after sialic acid treatment under nutrient deprivation. This method is sensitive and allows selective detection of glycan sialylation on a cancer cell surface. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York. Source

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