Galluzzi L.,Gustave Roussy Cancer Center |
Galluzzi L.,University of Paris Descartes |
Bravo-San Pedro J.M.,Gustave Roussy Cancer Center |
Bravo-San Pedro J.M.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research |
And 136 more authors.
Cell Death and Differentiation | Year: 2015
Cells exposed to extreme physicochemical or mechanical stimuli die in an uncontrollable manner, as a result of their immediate structural breakdown. Such an unavoidable variant of cellular demise is generally referred to as 'accidental cell death' (ACD). In most settings, however, cell death is initiated by a genetically encoded apparatus, correlating with the fact that its course can be altered by pharmacologic or genetic interventions. 'Regulated cell death' (RCD) can occur as part of physiologic programs or can be activated once adaptive responses to perturbations of the extracellular or intracellular microenvironment fail. The biochemical phenomena that accompany RCD may be harnessed to classify it into a few subtypes, which often (but not always) exhibit stereotyped morphologic features. Nonetheless, efficiently inhibiting the processes that are commonly thought to cause RCD, such as the activation of executioner caspases in the course of apoptosis, does not exert true cytoprotective effects in the mammalian system, but simply alters the kinetics of cellular demise as it shifts its morphologic and biochemical correlates. Conversely, bona fide cytoprotection can be achieved by inhibiting the transduction of lethal signals in the early phases of the process, when adaptive responses are still operational. Thus, the mechanisms that truly execute RCD may be less understood, less inhibitable and perhaps more homogeneous than previously thought. Here, the Nomenclature Committee on Cell Death formulates a set of recommendations to help scientists and researchers to discriminate between essential and accessory aspects of cell death. © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved.
Alpy F.,Institute Of Gene Tique Et Of Biologie Mole Culaire Et Cellulaire Igbmc |
Alpy F.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research |
Alpy F.,French National Center for Scientific Research |
Alpy F.,University of Strasbourg |
And 37 more authors.
Journal of Cell Science | Year: 2013
Inter-organelle membrane contacts sites (MCSs) are specific subcellular regions favoring the exchange of metabolites and information. We investigated the potential role of the late-endosomal membrane-anchored proteins StAR related lipid transfer domain-3 (STARD3) and STARD3 N-terminal like (STARD3NL) in the formation of MCSs involving late-endosomes (LEs). We demonstrate that both STARD3 and STARD3NL create MCSs between LEs and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). STARD3 and STARD3NL use a conserved two phenylalanines in an acidic tract (FFAT)-motif to interact with ER-anchored VAP proteins. Together, they form an LE-ER tethering complex allowing heterologous membrane apposition. This LE-ER tethering complex affects organelle dynamics by altering the formation of endosomal tubules. An in situ proximity ligation assay between STARD3, STARD3NL and VAP proteins identified endogenous LE-ER MCS. Thus, we report here the identification of proteins involved in inter-organellar interaction © 2013. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.