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Goenka M.K.,Institute of Gastro science | Goenka U.,Interventional Imaging
World Journal of Hepatology | Year: 2014

Hilar cholangiocarcinomas are common tumors of the bile duct that are often unresectable at presentation. Palliation, therefore, remains the goal in the majority of these patients. Palliative treatment is particularly indicated in the presence of cholangitis and pruritus but is often also offered for high-grade jaundice and abdominal pain. Endoscopic drainage by placing stents at endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography (ERCP) is usually the preferred modality of palliation. However, for advanced disease, percutaneous stenting has been shown to be superior to endoscopic stenting. Endosonography-guided biliary drainage is emerging as an alternative technique, particularly when ERCP is not possible or fails. Metal stents are usually preferred over plastic stents, both for ERCP and for percutaneous biliary drainage. There is no consensus as to whether it is necessary to place multiple stents within advanced hilar blocks or whether unilateral stenting would suffice. However, recent data have suggested that, contrary to previous belief, it is useful to drain more than 50% of the liver volume for favorable long-term results. In the presence of cholangitis, it is beneficial to drain all of the obstructed biliary segments. Surgical bypass plays a limited role in palliation and is offered primarily as aresection, the tumor is found to be unresectable. Photodynamic therapy and, more recently, radiofrequency ablation have been used as adjuvant therapies to improve the results of biliary stenting. The exact technique to be used for palliation is guided by the extent of the biliary involvement (Bismuth class) and the availability of local expertise. © 2014 Baishideng Publishing Group Inc.

Goenka M.K.,Institute of Gastro science | Majumder S.,University of Connecticut | Goenka U.,Interventional Imaging
World Journal of Gastroenterology | Year: 2014

Video capsule endoscopy (CE) since its introduction 13 years back, has revolutionized our approach to small intestinal diseases. Obscure gastrointestinal bleed (OGIB) continues to be the most important indication for CE with a high sensitivity, specificity as well as positive and negative predictive values. It is best performed during ongoing bleed or immediately thereafter. Overt OGIB has a higher diagnostic yield than occult OGIB. However, even in iron deficiency anemia, CE is emerging as important investigation after initial negative work up. In suspected Crohn's disease (CD), CE has been shown superior to traditional imaging and endoscopic technique and should be considered after a negative ileocolonoscopy. Although CE has also been used for evaluating established CD, a high capsule retention rate precludes its use ahead of cross-sectional imaging. Celiac disease, particularly where gastro-duodenoscopy cannot be performed or is normal, can also be investigated by CE. Small bowel tumor, hereditary polyposis syndrome, and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs induced intestinal damage are other indications for CE. Capsule retention is the only significant adverse outcome of CE and occurs mostly in presence of intestinal obstruction. This can be prevented by use of Patency capsule prior to CE examination. Presence of cardiac pacemaker and intracardiac devices continue to be relative contraindications for CE, though data do not suggest interference of CE with these devices. Major limitations of CE today include failure to control its movement from outside, inability of CE to acquire tissue for diagnosis, and lack of therapeutic help. With ongoing interesting and exciting developments taking place in these areas, these issues would be solved in all probability in near future. CE has the potential to become one of the most important tools in diagnostic and possibly in the therapeutic field of gastrointestinal disorder. © 2014 Baishideng Publishing Group Inc. All rights reserved.

Jha A.K.,Institute of Gastro science | Kumawat D.C.,Rabindra Nath Tagore Medical College | Bolya Y.K.,Rabindra Nath Tagore Medical College | Goenka M.K.,Institute of Gastro science
Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology | Year: 2012

Background and Aims: Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) requires rapid diagnosis and the initiation of antibiotics. Diagnosis of SBP is usually based on cytobacteriological examination of ascitic fluid. These tests require good laboratory facilities and reporting time of few hours to 1-2 day. However, the 24 h laboratory facilities not widely available in country like India. We evaluated the diagnostic utility of reagent strip (Multistix 10 SG®) for rapid diagnosis of SBP. Material and methods: The study was prospectively carried out on patients of cirrhosis with ascites. Bedside leukocyte esterase reagent strip testing was performed on ascitic fluid. Cell count as determined by colorimetric scale of reagent strip was compared with counting chamber method. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy were calculated. Result: Out of 100 patients with cirrhotic ascites, [72 males: 28 female; mean age 44.34 (SD 13.03) years] 18 patients were diagnosed to have SBP by counting chamber method as compared to 14 patients detected to have SBP by reagent strip test ≥++ positive. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy of reagent strip ≥++ positive were 77.77%, 95.12%, 77.77%, 95.12% and 92% respectively compared to counting chamber method. Conclusion: Reagent strip to diagnose SBP is very specific but less sensitive as compared to counting chamber method. This can be performed rapidly, easily and efficiently even in remote area of developing countries. This bedside test could be a useful tool for the diagnosis of SBP in country like India. © 2012 INASL.

Jha A.K.,Institute of Gastro science | Goenka M.K.,Institute of Gastro science | Goenka U.,Institute of Gastro science | Chakrabarti A.,Institute of Gastro science
Arab Journal of Gastroenterology | Year: 2013

Fascioliasis is a zoonotic infection caused by Fasciola hepatica. Because of population migration and international food trade, human fascioliasis is being an increasingly recognised entity in nonendemic zones. In most parts of Asia, hepatobiliary fascioliasis is sporadic. Human hepatobiliary infection by this trematode has two distinct phases: an acute hepatic phase and a chronic biliary phase. Hepatobiliary infection is mostly associated with intense peripheral eosinophilia. In addition to classically defined hepatic phase and biliary phase fascioliasis, some cases may have an overlap of these two phases. Chronic liver abscess formation is a rare presentation. We describe a surprise case of hepatobiliary fascioliasis who presented to us with liver abscess without intense peripheral eosinophilia, a rare presentation of human fascioliasis especially in non-endemic zones. © 2013 Arab Journal of Gastroenterology.

Goenka M.K.,Institute of Gastro science | Jha A.K.,Institute of Gastro science | Kapoor N.,Institute of Gastro science | Goenka U.,Institute of Gastro science
Journal of the Pancreas | Year: 2012

Context Pancreatic fistulae are uncommon and usually follow acute or chronic pancreatitis. While most of these are treated conservatively, some require surgery. Recently endoscopic therapy has emerged as an effective alternative treatment modality. Case report We present a patient with internal pancreatic fistula due to alcohol related chronic pancreatitis. Endotherapy using glue resulted in resolution of the fistula. Conclusion The use of endoscopic glue injection may be a safe and effective method for the successful therapy of internal pancreatic fistula.

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