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Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, Germany

Gorniak T.,University of Heidelberg | Heine R.,University of Heidelberg | Mancuso A.P.,German Electron Synchrotron | Staier F.,University of Heidelberg | And 17 more authors.
Optics Express | Year: 2011

The imaging of hydrated biological samples - especially in the energy window of 284-540 eV, where water does not obscure the signal of soft organic matter and biologically relevant elements - is of tremendous interest for life sciences. Free-electron lasers can provide highly intense and coherent pulses, which allow single pulse imaging to overcome resolution limits set by radiation damage. One current challenge is to match both the desired energy and the intensity of the light source. We present the first images of dehydrated biological material acquired with 3rd harmonic radiation from FLASH by digital in-line zone plate holography as one step towards the vision of imaging hydrated biological material with photons in the water window. We also demonstrate the first application of ultrathin molecular sheets as suitable substrates for future free-electron laser experiments with biological samples in the form of a rat fibroblast cell and marine biofouling bacteria Cobetia marina. ©2011 Optical Society of America. Source

Obst U.,Institute of Functional Interfaces | Marten S.-M.,Institute of Functional Interfaces | Niessner C.,Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg | Hartwig E.,Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg
International Journal of Artificial Organs | Year: 2011

Bacterial 16S rDNA was monitored and identified from orthopedic metallic implants after routine or septic removal from patients in a German hospital. From March to June 2009, 28 metallic implants, 10 human biopsies, and 6 foam dressings from 28 patients were investigated. After analysis of this first collective, the methods were optimized to enhance sensitivity and to reduce interference with human DNA. Then a second collective consisting of 21 metallic implants from 21 patients was investigated from June 2009 to January 2010. In the first collective, 71% of the metallic implants were negative for eubacterial DNA. Pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus and opportunists such as Lactobacillus rhamnosus were identified in 11% of the samples, whereas the residual 18% positive results were classified as from skin sources or could not be confirmed. Tissue, secretion, and bone samples as well as foam dressings from the same collective also contained pathogens and opportunists. After the optimization of the methods, a considerable increase of positive samples was seen: in the second collective 19 of the 21 metallic implants proved to be positive for eubacterial 16S rDNA. Bacterial DNA from environmental sources was detected in 13 samples, and in 20 specimens, predominantly mostly the skin. Opportunistic pathogens were detected in 19 samples. Interestingly, septic complications did not occur despite the presence of bacterial DNA. The results obtained up to now encourage us not only to continue a directed monitoring of bacterial DNA on orthopedic implants in practice but also to look intensely for possible sources of bacterial contamination during and after insertion or during removal of such implants. © 2011 Wichtig Editore. Source

Pfletschinger H.,TU Darmstadt | Engelhardt I.,TU Darmstadt | Piepenbrink M.,TU Darmstadt | Koniger F.,Institute of Functional Interfaces | And 3 more authors.
Environmental Earth Sciences | Year: 2012

For the determination of groundwater recharge processes in arid environments, vadose zone water fluxes and water storage should be considered. To better understand and quantify vadose zone processes influencing groundwater recharge, a soil column experimental setup has been developed that mimics arid atmospheric conditions and measures water and temperature fluxes in high temporal and spatial resolution. The focus of the experiment was on the determination of water infiltration, redistribution, evaporation and percolation under non-isothermal conditions. TDR rod sensors and a specific TDR "Taupe" cable sensor were used for water content measurements and allowed the infiltration fronts to be traced over the whole column length. Applying single irrigations of different amount and intensity showed the applicability of the experimental setup for the measurement of water movement in the unsaturated soil column. © 2011 Springer-Verlag. Source

Proll J.,Institute for Materials Research I | Kohler R.,Institute for Materials Research I | Adelhelm C.,Institute for Materials Research I | Bruns M.,Institute for Materials Research III | And 5 more authors.
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2011

The development of future battery systems is mainly focused on powerful rechargeable lithium-ion batteries. To satisfy this demand, current studies are focused on cathodes based on nano-composite materials which lead to an increase in power density of the LIB primarily due to large electrochemically active surface areas. Electrode materials made of lithium manganese oxides (Li-Mn-O) are assumed to replace commonly used cathode materials like LiCoO2 due to less toxicity and lower costs. Thin films in the Li-Mn-O system were synthesized by non-reactive r.f. magnetron sputtering of a LiMn 2O4 target on silicon and stainless steel substrates. In order to enhance power density and cycle stability of the cathode material, direct laser structuring methods were investigated using a laser system operating at a wavelength of 248 nm. Therefore, high aspect ratio micro-structures were formed on the thin films. Laser annealing processes were investigated in order to achieve an appropriate crystalline phase for unstructured and structured thin films as well as for an increase in energy density and control of grain size. Laser annealing was realized via a high power diode laser system. The effects of post-thermal treatment on the thin films were studied with Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The formation of electrochemically active and inactive phases was discussed. Surface chemistry was investigated via X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Interaction between UV-laser radiation and the thin film material was analyzed through ablation experiments. Finally, to investigate the electrochemical properties, the manufactured thin film cathodes were cycled against a lithium anode. The formation of a solid electrolyte interphase on the cathode side was discussed. © 2011 SPIE. Source

Bendeddouche C.K.,University dOran1 Ahmed Ben Bella | Adjdir M.,University dOran1 Ahmed Ben Bella | Adjdir M.,Institute of Functional Interfaces | Benhaoua H.,University dOran1 Ahmed Ben Bella
Letters in Organic Chemistry | Year: 2016

Background: The cyclopropanation reaction was inspected by addition of carbene generated from ethyl diazoacetate in the presence of a greener Cu-exchanged bentonite catalyst to olefin under solvent free condition. The cyclopropanes were obtained with good yields. Our own contribution in this area was to introduce a modified Algerian bentonite as a catalyst and microwave activation as a mode of heating. Methods: A catalytic material developed from natural type montmorillonite clays, from deposits of Maghnia (Western Algeria), by cation exchange (Cu2+) was characterized by different spectral methods. The catalytic properties of the new material were explored in cyclopropanation reaction of olefins under microwave irradiation. A comparative study with Cu-exchanged bentonite as catalyst between microwave activation and classical heating was conducted. Results: Cu2+ exchanged clay is an efficient catalyst in the generation of carbenes from diazocompounds, under microwave irradiation. The formation of carboxylate cyclopropane was performed in solvent free condition with moderate diastereoselectivity. The yields were good, and the catalyst can be reused at least three times without noticeable loss of catalytic activity. Conclusion: This work shows that the coupling "modified clay/microwave activation" is a clean and simple access to functionalized cyclopropanes. This reusable Cu exchanged clay material is shown to be as a good substitute for many sophisticated and hardly accessible catalysts. © 2016 Bentham Science Publishers. Source

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