Institute of Functional Genomics

Regensburg, Germany

Institute of Functional Genomics

Regensburg, Germany
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Mkrtchyan H.,Jena University Hospital | Mkrtchyan H.,Yerevan State University | Gross M.,Jena University Hospital | Gross M.,German Cancer Research Center | And 16 more authors.
Current Genomics | Year: 2010

The discovery of copy number variations (CNV) in the human genome opened new perspectives in the study of the genetic causes of inherited disorders and the etiology of common diseases. Differently patterned instances of somatic mosaicism in CNV regions have been shown to be present in monozygotic twins and throughout different tissues within an individual. A single-cell-level investigation of CNV in different human cell types led us to uncover mitotically derived genomic mosaicism, which is stable in different cell types of one individual. A unique study of immortalized Blymphoblastoid cell lines obtained with 20 year interval from the same two subjects shows that mitotic changes in CNV regions may happen early during embryonic development and seem to occur only once, as levels of mosaicism remained stable. This finding has the potential to change our concept of dynamic human genome variation. We propose that further genomic studies should focus on the single-cell level, to understand better the etiology and physiology of aging and diseases mediated by somatic variations. © 2010 Bentham Science Publishers Ltd.


Mkrtchyan H.,Jena University Hospital | Gross M.,Jena University Hospital | Gross M.,German Cancer Research Center | Hinreiner S.,Jena University Hospital | And 10 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2010

The discovery of copy number variations (CNV) in the human genome opened new perspectives on the study of the genetic causes of inherited disorders and the aetiology of common diseases. Here, a single-cell-level investigation of CNV in different human tissues led us to uncover the phenomenon of mitotically derived genomic mosaicism, which is stable in different cell types of one individual. The CNV mosaic ratios were different between the 10 individuals studied. However, they were stable in the T lymphocytes, immortalized B lymphoblastoid cells, and skin fibroblasts analyzed in each individual. Because these cell types have a common origin in the connective tissues, we suggest that mitotic changes in CNV regions may happen early during embryonic development and occur only once, after which the stable mosaic ratio is maintained throughout the differentiated tissues. This concept is further supported by a unique study of immortalized B lymphoblastoid cell lines obtained with 20 year difference from two subjects. We provide the first evidence of somatic mosaicism for CNV, with stable variation ratios in different cell types of one individual leading to the hypothesis of early embryonic chromosome instability resulting in stable mosaic pattern in human tissues. This concept has the potential to open new perspectives in personalized genetic diagnostics and can explain genetic phenomena like diminished penetrance in autosomal dominant diseases. We propose that further genomic studies should focus on the single-cell level, to better understand the aetiology of aging and diseases mediated by somatic mutations. © 2010 Mkrtchyan et al.


Bauer K.,University of Regensburg | Gosau M.,University of Regensburg | Reinders J.,Institute of Functional Genomics | Oefner P.,Institute of Functional Genomics | And 2 more authors.
Carcinogenesis | Year: 2013

P-cadherin belongs to a family of Ca2+-dependent homophilic cell- cell adhesion proteins that are important for correct cellular localization and tissue integrity in the oral epithelium. P-cadherin is only expressed in the basal and suprabasal cell layers of the oral epithelium, but in advanced oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), a reduced membranous and an enhanced cytoplasmic truncated P-cadherin level is observed. In this study, we investigated the impact of presenilin (PS) 1/γ-secretase on P-cadherin processing in OSCC. Western blot analyses showed an enhanced PS1 expression in OSCC cell lines and in primary oral keratinocytes (POK) isolated from primary OSCC tissue (OSCC POK) compared with POKs isolated from normal oral mucosa. Immunocytochemical stainings and co-immunoprecipitation experiments revealed a cytoplasmic colocalization and a direct interaction of P-cadherin and PS1 in OSCC POKs. Blocking of PS1/γ-secretase activity by the PS1/γ-secretase inhibitors and N-[N-(3,5-difluorophenacetyl)-l-alanyl]-S-phenylglycine t-butyl ester, another specific γ-secretase inhibitor yielded a 100 kDa P-cadherin band on western blots of OSCC cell line extracts. Small interfering RNA knockdown of PS1 equally generated a 100 kDa P-cadherin form in OSCC POKs. Mass spectrometry analyses and experiments with the glycosylation inhibitor tunicamycin characterized the appearing 100 kDa P-cadherin band as the unglycosylated full-length form of P-cadherin. On the functional level, cell attachment assays demonstrated an enhanced cell adhesion after PS1/γ-secretase inhibition only in the transiently P-cadherin expressing OSCC cell line PCI52 but not in the PCI52 control cells. In summary, our results show that PS1/γ-secretase contributes to P-cadherin processing and to reduced cell adhesion in OSCC. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

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