Institute of Functional and Applied Anatomy

Institute of Functional and Applied Anatomy

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Ailion M.,Howard Hughes Medical Institute | Ailion M.,University of Washington | Hannemann M.,European Neuroscience Institute | Hannemann M.,International Max Planck Research School Molecular Biology | And 16 more authors.
Neuron | Year: 2014

Peptide neuromodulators are released from a unique organelle: the dense-core vesicle. Dense-core vesicles are generated at the trans-Golgi and then sort cargo during maturation before being secreted. To identify proteins that act in this pathway, we performed a genetic screen in Caenorhabditis elegans for mutants defective in dense-core vesicle function. We identified two conserved Rab2-binding proteins: RUND-1, a RUN domain protein, and CCCP-1, a coiled-coil protein. RUND-1 and CCCP-1 colocalize with RAB-2 at the Golgi, and rab-2, rund-1, and cccp-1 mutants have similar defects in sorting soluble and transmembrane dense-core vesicle cargos. RUND-1 also interacts with the Rab2 GAP protein TBC-8 and the BAR domain protein RIC-19, a RAB-2 effector. In summary, a pathway of conserved proteins controls the maturation of dense-core vesicles at the trans-Golgi network. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.


Kittelmann M.,University of Gottingen | Liewald J.F.,Buchmann Institute for Molecular Life science | Liewald J.F.,Goethe University Frankfurt | Liewald J.F.,Institute of Functional and Applied Anatomy | And 13 more authors.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America | Year: 2013

Local recycling of synaptic vesicles (SVs) allows neurons to sustain transmitter release. Extreme activity (e.g., during seizure) may exhaust synaptic transmission and, in vitro, induces bulk endocytosis to recover SV membrane and proteins; how this occurs in animals is unknown. Following optogenetic hyperstimulation of Caenorhabditis elegans motoneurons, we analyzed synaptic recovery by time-resolved behavioral, electrophysiological, and ultrastructural assays. Recovery of docked SVs and of evokedrelease amplitudes (indicating readily-releasable pool refilling) occurred within ∼8-20 s (τ = 9.2 s and τ = 11.9 s), whereas locomotion recovered only after ∼60 s (τ = 20 s). During ∼11-s stimulation, 50- to 200-nm noncoated vesicles ("100nm vesicles") formed, which disappeared ∼8 s poststimulation, likely representing endocytic intermediates from which SVs may regenerate. In endophilin, synaptojanin, and dynamin mutants, affecting endocytosis and vesicle scission, resolving 100nm vesicles was delayed (>20 s). In dynamin mutants, 100nm vesicles were abundant and persistent, sometimes continuous with the plasma membrane; incomplete budding of smaller vesicles from 100nm vesicles further implicates dynamin in regenerating SVs from bulk-endocytosed vesicles. Synaptic recovery after exhaustive activity is slow, and different time scales of recovery at ultrastructural, physiological, and behavioral levels indicate multiple contributing processes. Similar processes may jointly account for slow recovery from acute seizures also in higher animals.


Wittmann T.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Schindlbeck U.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Hoppner S.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Kinting S.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | And 8 more authors.
Pediatric Pulmonology | Year: 2016

Background: Interstitial lung diseases (ILD) comprise disorders of mostly unknown cause. Among the few molecularly defined entities, mutations in the gene encoding the ATP-binding cassette (ABC), subfamily A, member 3 (ABCA3) lipid transporter represent the main cause of inherited surfactant dysfunction disorders, a subgroup of ILD. Whereas many cases are reported, specific methods to functionally define such mutations are rarely presented. Materials and Methods: In this study, we exemplarily utilized a set of molecular tools to characterize the mutation K1388N, which had been identified in a patient suffering from ILD with lethal outcome. We also aimed to correlate in vitro and ex vivo findings. Results: We found that presence of the K1388N mutation did not affect protein expression, but resulted in an altered protein processing and a functional impairment of ABCA3. This was demonstrated by decreased dipalmitoyl-phosphatidylcholine (PC 32:0) content and malformed lamellar bodies in cells transfected with the K1388N variant as compared to controls. Conclusions: Here we present a set of tools useful for categorizing different ABCA3 mutations according to their impact upon ABCA3 activity. Knowledge of the molecular defects and close correlation of in vitro and ex vivo data will allow us to define groups of mutations that can be targeted by small molecule correctors for restoring impaired ABCA3 transporter in the future. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


PubMed | Justus Liebig University and Institute of Functional and Applied Anatomy
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The journal of pathology. Clinical research | Year: 2016

Amiodarone (AD) is an iodinated benzofuran derivative, especially known for its antiarrhythmic properties. It exerts serious side-effects even in patients receiving low doses. AD is well-known to induce apoptosis of type II alveolar epithelial cells (AECII), a mechanism that has been suggested to play an important role in AD-induced lung fibrosis. The precise molecular mechanisms underlying this disease are, however, still unclear. Because of its amphiphilic nature, AD becomes enriched in the lysosomal compartments, affecting the general functions of these organelles. Hence, in this study, we aimed to assess the role of autophagy, a lysosome-dependent homeostasis mechanism, in driving AECII apoptosis in response to AD. In vitro, AD-treated MLE12 and primary AECII cells showed increased proSP-C and LC3B positive vacuolar structures and underwent LC3B-dependent apoptosis. In addition, AD-induced autophagosome-lysosome fusion and increased autophagy flux were observed. In vivo, in C57BL/6 mice, LC3B was localised at the limiting membrane of lamellar bodies, which were closely connected to the autophagosomal structures in AECIIs. Our data suggest that AD causes activation of macroautophagy in AECIIs and extensive autophagy-dependent apoptosis of alveolar epithelial cells. Targeting the autophagy pathway may therefore represent an attractive treatment modality in AD-induced lung fibrosis.


Rudat C.,Institute of Molecular Biology | Grieskamp T.,Institute of Molecular Biology | Hr C.R.,Institute of Molecular Biology | Airik R.,Institute of Molecular Biology | And 5 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

The mesothelium, the lining of the coelomic cavities, and the urothelium, the inner lining of the urinary drainage system, are highly specialized epithelia that protect the underlying tissues from mechanical stress and seal them from the overlying fluid space. The development of these epithelia from simple precursors and the molecular characteristics of the mature tissues are poorly analyzed. Here, we show that uroplakin 3B (Upk3b), which encodes an integral membrane protein of the tetraspanin superfamily, is specifically expressed both in development as well as under homeostatic conditions in adult mice in the mesothelia of the body cavities, i.e., the epicardium and pericardium, the pleura and the peritoneum, and in the urothelium of the urinary tract. To analyze Upk3b function, we generated a creERT2 knock-in allele by homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells. We show that Upk3bcreERT2 represents a null allele despite the lack of creERT2 expression from the mutated locus. Morphological, histological and molecular analyses of Upk3b-deficient mice did not detect changes in differentiation or integrity of the urothelium and the mesothelia that cover internal organs. Upk3b is coexpressed with the closely related Upk3a gene in the urothelium but not in the mesothelium, leaving the possibility of a functional redundancy between the two genes in the urothelium only. © 2014 Rudat et al.


PubMed | Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics, Institute of Functional and Applied Anatomy and Institute of Molecular Biology
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2014

The mesothelium, the lining of the coelomic cavities, and the urothelium, the inner lining of the urinary drainage system, are highly specialized epithelia that protect the underlying tissues from mechanical stress and seal them from the overlying fluid space. The development of these epithelia from simple precursors and the molecular characteristics of the mature tissues are poorly analyzed. Here, we show that uroplakin 3B (Upk3b), which encodes an integral membrane protein of the tetraspanin superfamily, is specifically expressed both in development as well as under homeostatic conditions in adult mice in the mesothelia of the body cavities, i.e., the epicardium and pericardium, the pleura and the peritoneum, and in the urothelium of the urinary tract. To analyze Upk3b function, we generated a creERT2 knock-in allele by homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells. We show that Upk3bcreERT2 represents a null allele despite the lack of creERT2 expression from the mutated locus. Morphological, histological and molecular analyses of Upk3b-deficient mice did not detect changes in differentiation or integrity of the urothelium and the mesothelia that cover internal organs. Upk3b is coexpressed with the closely related Upk3a gene in the urothelium but not in the mesothelium, leaving the possibility of a functional redundancy between the two genes in the urothelium only.


PubMed | Institute for Transfusion Medicine, Hannover Medical School and Institute of Functional and Applied Anatomy
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Transfusion | Year: 2016

Inherited and acquired marrow failure syndromes most commonly lead to defect in myeloid and/or neutrophil differentiation and/or function. Besides this, neutropenia induced by cancer-adjusted chemotherapy is a frequent clinical problem. In both cases, cell replacement therapy is a well-established, but due to necessity of donors limited and perilous procedure. Therefore, autologous cell replacement from patients own marrow-derived cells lowers risk and bares new possibilities for therapy. Since the immune system of the marmoset monkey is known to show high similarity to humans, preclinical studies with these animals bare high hopes for immunologic research and cell replacement therapy.Marmoset-induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells (cj-iPSC) were first cultivated on mouse embryonic feeder cells in medium containing recombinant human vascular endothelial growth factor. After 13 days, CD34+/vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR2)- cells were sorted, treated with interleukin (IL-3), thrombopoietin, and stem cell factor for 20 days and further cultivated with granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and IL-3 for 10 days.CD34+/VEGFR2- cells could be generated in high amounts (39.656.01%; 2.3110cj-iPSC-derived neutrophils bare high hopes in hematologic cell replacement therapy. They exhibit high morphologic similarity to native neutrophils and present neutrophil-specific surface antigens, antimicrobial proteins, and gene products yielding an auspicious approach for continuative experiments including tests in living animals.


Hadamitzky C.,Clinic of Plastic | Hadamitzky C.,Institute of Functional and Applied Anatomy | Spohr H.,Institute of Functional and Applied Anatomy | Debertin A.S.,Institute of Legal Medicine | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Anatomy | Year: 2010

Experimental evidence indicates that lymph nodes in humans undergo alterations during ageing. This is clinically important because of the crucial role of these organs in the immune system and their lymph reabsorption and drainage function. Although some age-related changes in lymph node histoarchitecture have been described, they are seldom taken into account in traditional depictions of lymph nodes. Recently introduced clinical procedures, such as intranodal vaccination or lymph node transplantation, have demonstrated the need for an accurate knowledge of these degenerative processes. In this study, superficial inguinal lymph nodes were obtained from 41 deceased patients between 17 and 98 years old. To minimize immunological influences, such as chronic diseases, specimens were only obtained from forensic pathology autopsies. An immunohistochemical analysis was carried out, on the basis of which lymph node degeneration was scored according to the numbers of lymphocytes and high endothelial venules, and degree of fibrosis and lipomatosis. We observed an age-dependent tendency towards the replacement of areas populated with diverse immune cells by connective tissue. Paradoxically, these changes were also detected in some of the nodes from younger age groups. In conclusion, lymph nodes can display degenerative changes that are mainly age-related and often diverge from the common description found in textbooks. These alterations should be taken into account when dealing with lymph nodes diagnostically and therapeutically in clinical practice. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Anatomical Society of Great Britain and Ireland.


PubMed | Hannover Medical School, Institute of Functional and Applied Anatomy, Saarland University, Institute of Immunomorphology and Ev. luth. Kirche Zum Heiligen Kreuz
Type: | Journal: Annals of anatomy = Anatomischer Anzeiger : official organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft | Year: 2016

The departments of anatomy in Germany, Austria and the German-speaking part of Switzerland were sent comprehensive (18 items) questionnaires requesting details on memorial ceremonies held at the close of the dissection course in the medical curriculum, including objectives, organization, number of participants and the role of the medical students. The response rate was very high (95%). In more than 95% of instances a ceremony is held, initiated mainly after 1970. The titles of the ceremony range from commemoration ceremony (42%), service of mourning (19%) memorial service (19%) to ceremony of gratitude (7%). The number of participants exceeds 300 in 15% of these ceremonies. The invitation comes mostly from the student group organizing the ceremony (62%). The ceremony is offered mainly for the students of the course (23%), for student tutors (16%), relatives of the body donors (23%) and scientific staff (15%). The students actively participate with musical contributions (19%), gestures such as candles (17%) and flowers (12%), speeches (17%) and readings (12%). The relevance of the practical dissection course and body donation programs is also discussed. The results are compared to ceremonies in various countries with different religious backgrounds. This dissection course is unique among all courses in the medical curriculum as it obviously also has spiritual aspects.


Alten L.,Institute for Molecular Biology | Schuster-Gossler K.,Institute for Molecular Biology | Beckers A.,Institute for Molecular Biology | Groos S.,Medizinische Hochschule Hanover | And 4 more authors.
Development | Year: 2012

The mouse transcription factor Noto is expressed in the node and controls node morphogenesis, formation of nodal cilia and left-right asymmetry. Noto acts upstream of Foxj1, which regulates ciliogenesis in other mouse tissues. However, the significance of Foxj1 for the formation of cilia in the mouse node is unclear; in non-amniote species Foxj1 is required for ciliogenesis in the structures equivalent to the node. Here, we analyzed nodes, nodal cilia and nodal flow in mouse embryos in which we replaced the Noto-coding sequence with that of Foxj1, or in embryos that were deficient for Foxj1. We show that Foxj1 expressed from the Noto locus is functional and restores the formation of structurally normal motile cilia in the absence of Noto. However, Foxj1 is not sufficient for the correct positioning of cilia on the cell surface within the plane of the nodal epithelium, and cannot restore normal node morphology. We also show that Foxj1 is essential for ciliogenesis upstream of Rfx3 in the node. Thus, the function of Foxj1 in vertebrate organs of asymmetry is conserved, and Noto regulates node morphogenesis and the posterior localization of cilia on node cells independently of Foxj1. © 2012. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

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