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Hadamitzky C.,Clinic of Plastic | Hadamitzky C.,Institute of Functional and Applied Anatomy | Spohr H.,Institute of Functional and Applied Anatomy | Debertin A.S.,Institute of Legal Medicine | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Anatomy | Year: 2010

Experimental evidence indicates that lymph nodes in humans undergo alterations during ageing. This is clinically important because of the crucial role of these organs in the immune system and their lymph reabsorption and drainage function. Although some age-related changes in lymph node histoarchitecture have been described, they are seldom taken into account in traditional depictions of lymph nodes. Recently introduced clinical procedures, such as intranodal vaccination or lymph node transplantation, have demonstrated the need for an accurate knowledge of these degenerative processes. In this study, superficial inguinal lymph nodes were obtained from 41 deceased patients between 17 and 98 years old. To minimize immunological influences, such as chronic diseases, specimens were only obtained from forensic pathology autopsies. An immunohistochemical analysis was carried out, on the basis of which lymph node degeneration was scored according to the numbers of lymphocytes and high endothelial venules, and degree of fibrosis and lipomatosis. We observed an age-dependent tendency towards the replacement of areas populated with diverse immune cells by connective tissue. Paradoxically, these changes were also detected in some of the nodes from younger age groups. In conclusion, lymph nodes can display degenerative changes that are mainly age-related and often diverge from the common description found in textbooks. These alterations should be taken into account when dealing with lymph nodes diagnostically and therapeutically in clinical practice. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Anatomical Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Source


Wittmann T.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Schindlbeck U.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Hoppner S.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Kinting S.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | And 8 more authors.
Pediatric Pulmonology | Year: 2016

Background: Interstitial lung diseases (ILD) comprise disorders of mostly unknown cause. Among the few molecularly defined entities, mutations in the gene encoding the ATP-binding cassette (ABC), subfamily A, member 3 (ABCA3) lipid transporter represent the main cause of inherited surfactant dysfunction disorders, a subgroup of ILD. Whereas many cases are reported, specific methods to functionally define such mutations are rarely presented. Materials and Methods: In this study, we exemplarily utilized a set of molecular tools to characterize the mutation K1388N, which had been identified in a patient suffering from ILD with lethal outcome. We also aimed to correlate in vitro and ex vivo findings. Results: We found that presence of the K1388N mutation did not affect protein expression, but resulted in an altered protein processing and a functional impairment of ABCA3. This was demonstrated by decreased dipalmitoyl-phosphatidylcholine (PC 32:0) content and malformed lamellar bodies in cells transfected with the K1388N variant as compared to controls. Conclusions: Here we present a set of tools useful for categorizing different ABCA3 mutations according to their impact upon ABCA3 activity. Knowledge of the molecular defects and close correlation of in vitro and ex vivo data will allow us to define groups of mutations that can be targeted by small molecule correctors for restoring impaired ABCA3 transporter in the future. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source


Alten L.,Institute for Molecular Biology | Schuster-Gossler K.,Institute for Molecular Biology | Beckers A.,Institute for Molecular Biology | Groos S.,Medizinische Hochschule Hanover | And 4 more authors.
Development | Year: 2012

The mouse transcription factor Noto is expressed in the node and controls node morphogenesis, formation of nodal cilia and left-right asymmetry. Noto acts upstream of Foxj1, which regulates ciliogenesis in other mouse tissues. However, the significance of Foxj1 for the formation of cilia in the mouse node is unclear; in non-amniote species Foxj1 is required for ciliogenesis in the structures equivalent to the node. Here, we analyzed nodes, nodal cilia and nodal flow in mouse embryos in which we replaced the Noto-coding sequence with that of Foxj1, or in embryos that were deficient for Foxj1. We show that Foxj1 expressed from the Noto locus is functional and restores the formation of structurally normal motile cilia in the absence of Noto. However, Foxj1 is not sufficient for the correct positioning of cilia on the cell surface within the plane of the nodal epithelium, and cannot restore normal node morphology. We also show that Foxj1 is essential for ciliogenesis upstream of Rfx3 in the node. Thus, the function of Foxj1 in vertebrate organs of asymmetry is conserved, and Noto regulates node morphogenesis and the posterior localization of cilia on node cells independently of Foxj1. © 2012. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd. Source


Rudat C.,Institute of Molecular Biology | Grieskamp T.,Institute of Molecular Biology | Hr C.R.,Institute of Molecular Biology | Airik R.,Institute of Molecular Biology | And 5 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

The mesothelium, the lining of the coelomic cavities, and the urothelium, the inner lining of the urinary drainage system, are highly specialized epithelia that protect the underlying tissues from mechanical stress and seal them from the overlying fluid space. The development of these epithelia from simple precursors and the molecular characteristics of the mature tissues are poorly analyzed. Here, we show that uroplakin 3B (Upk3b), which encodes an integral membrane protein of the tetraspanin superfamily, is specifically expressed both in development as well as under homeostatic conditions in adult mice in the mesothelia of the body cavities, i.e., the epicardium and pericardium, the pleura and the peritoneum, and in the urothelium of the urinary tract. To analyze Upk3b function, we generated a creERT2 knock-in allele by homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells. We show that Upk3bcreERT2 represents a null allele despite the lack of creERT2 expression from the mutated locus. Morphological, histological and molecular analyses of Upk3b-deficient mice did not detect changes in differentiation or integrity of the urothelium and the mesothelia that cover internal organs. Upk3b is coexpressed with the closely related Upk3a gene in the urothelium but not in the mesothelium, leaving the possibility of a functional redundancy between the two genes in the urothelium only. © 2014 Rudat et al. Source

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