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Salleh N.H.M.,Marine Ecosystem Research Center | Othman R.,Institute of Fuel Cell
Indian Journal of Marine Sciences | Year: 2012

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the satisfaction level of tourists at the Tioman Island Marine Park (TIMP) toward the island's environmental service quality offered. The measurement of tourist satisfaction is based on the mean analysis, i.e. the importance mean (expected mean) and the perceived mean (satisfactory mean). The difference between these mean values shows the gap value. The research result shows that all tourists (both locals and foreign) agree on satisfaction toward the TIMP's environmental service quality offered. However, the perceived mean is less than the expected mean. Hence, the gap analysis as well as the paired t-test finds that the mean values for most of the environmental service quality are negative. These negative values indicate a relatively low level of the tourist satisfaction.


Salleh N.H.M.,Institute of Fuel Cell | Salleh N.H.M.,Institute of Marine Ecosystem UKM EKOMAR | Othman R.,Institute of Fuel Cell | Othman R.,Institute of West Asian Studies IKRAB | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Sustainability Science and Management | Year: 2012

This research intends to evaluate the importance and satisfaction level of tourists in regard to the environmental service quality offered by marine parks, namely Tioman Island Marine Park (TIMP), Redang Island Marine Park (RIMP), and Payar Island Marine Park (PIMP). The measurement of importance and satisfaction is based on mean analysis of both the importance mean (estimated/ expected mean) and perceived mean (satisfaction mean). The difference between these mean values signifies gap value. In explaining the existence of difference, the gap analysis in this research is assisted by the paired t-test analysis. If the result is significant, this indicates that the tourists get what they expected from their visits. However, if the result is not significant, it must be ascertained as to whether their visits fulfilled their expectations or otherwise. Research results show that all tourists express the importance of and satisfaction towards the environmental service quality offered by all the three marine parks, i.e. TIMP, RIMP and PIMP. Overall, all the marine parks are important and satisfying. Nonetheless, there is a difference between the mean values in the gap analysis and the paired t-test. Gap analysis shows that the mean values for most of the environmental service quality under study are negative for TIMP, but positive for RIMP, PIMP and for the overall marine parks. This indicates that when the three marine parks are evaluated separately, tourist satisfaction differs. However, in general, most of the tourists are satisfied with the environmental services offered. The tourist overall satisfaction index shows that the highest satisfaction goes to RIMP at 86.8 percent, followed by TIMP at 70.3 percent and PIMP at 67.0 percent. © Universiti Malaysia Terengganu Publisher.


Hosseini S.,Institute of Fuel Cell | Wan Daud W.R.,Institute of Fuel Cell | Badiei M.,National University of Malaysia | Kadhum A.A.H.,Institute of Fuel Cell | Mohammad A.B.,Institute of Fuel Cell
Bulletin of Materials Science | Year: 2011

Cesium dihydrogen phosphate (CDP) powders were synthesized by cetyltrimethylammoniumbromide (CTAB), polyoxyethylene-polyoxypropylene (F-68) and mixture of both surfactants F-68 : CTAB with two molar ratios 0.06 and 0.12 as surfactant solutions at room temperature. The synthesized CsH 2PO4 is characterized by ICP, XRD, TEM, SEM, FT-IR, BET and IS techniques. Based on the width of the (011) XRD diffraction peak and BET measurement, the average size of nanoparticles was ̃ 10 nm in diameter, while the TEM images indicate smaller size than both techniques. The analysis reveals existence of P and Cs with mole ratio 1.02 ± 0.03 which is compatible to molar ratio CsH2PO4 formula. The experimental results show that the conductivities increase in the order of CDPCTAB > CDP (F-68 : CTAB)0.12 > CDP(F-68:CTAB)0.06 > CDP F-68. The sequence of increasing conductivity is in accordance with the ion exchange capacities of the samples that has direct proportional effect on the proton mobility of samples. Indeed CTAB as cationic surfactant shows the highest proton mobility in the as-obtained samples. © Indian Academy of Sciences.

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