Institute of Fruit Tree Science
Institute of Fruit Tree Science
Chiba S.,Okayama University |
Lin Y.-H,Okayama University |
Kondo H.,Okayama University |
Kanematsu S.,Institute of Fruit Tree Science |
Suzuki N.,Okayama University
Journal of Virology | Year: 2013
A novel victorivirus, termed Rosellinia necatrix victorivirus 1 (RnVV1), was isolated from a plant pathogenic ascomycete, white root rot fungus Rosellinia necatrix, coinfected with a partitivirus. The virus was molecularly and biologically characterized using the natural and experimental hosts (chestnut blight fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica). RnVV1 was shown to have typical molecular victorivirus attributes, including a monopartite double-stranded RNA genome with two open reading frames (ORFs) encoding capsid protein (CP) and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), a UAAUG pentamer presumed to facilitate the coupled termination/reinitiation for translation of the two ORFs, a spherical particle structure ̃40 nm in diameter, and moderate levels of CP and RdRp sequence identity (34 to 58%) to those of members of the genus Victorivirus within the family Totiviridae. A reproducible transfection system with purified RnVV1 virions was developed for the two distinct fungal hosts. Transfection assay with purified RnVV1 virions combined with virus elimination by hyphal tipping showed that the effects of RnVV1 on the phenotype of the natural host were negligible. Interestingly, comparison of the RNA silencing-competent (standard strain EP155) and -defective (Δdcl-2) strains of C. parasitica infected with RnVV1 showed that RNA silencing acted against the virus to repress its replication, which was restored by coinfection with hypovirus or transgenic expression of an RNA silencing suppressor, hypovirus p29. Phenotypic changes were observed in the Δdcl-2 strain but not in EP155. This is the first reported study on the host range expansion of a Totiviridae member that is targeted by RNA silencing. © 2013, American Society for Microbiology.
Toyama M.,Institute of Fruit Tree Science |
Mishiro K.,Institute of Fruit Tree Science |
Nakano R.,Institute of Fruit Tree Science |
Ihara F.,Institute of Fruit Tree Science
Applied Entomology and Zoology | Year: 2013
To study developmental response of the brown-winged green bug, Plautia stali Scott, to food shortage we reared nymphs under restricted feeding conditions produced by shortening the feeding period after molt or withholding food from second to fifth instars. For second instars, molting rates were significantly reduced as the feeding period was shortened. Shortening the feeding periods for third to fifth instars also reduced molting rates, but less so; some nymphs were able to complete their developments even if no food was given to any of the instars. Compared with controls for which feeding was not restricted, nymphs that successfully reached the next instar had reduced postmolt body size as a result of restricted feeding for all instars except the fifth (2-day feeding for second instar, and 1-day feeding for third and fourth instars), whereas instar duration was unchanged or only slightly prolonged for all instars. These results suggest that only nymphs with nutritional accumulation over a specific threshold in each instar can progress to the next instar, and that, particularly for second to fourth instars, nymphs develop on schedule without prolonging instar durations to compensate for reduced growth under conditions of food shortage. © 2013 The Japanese Society of Applied Entomology and Zoology.