Kathmandu, Nepal

Institute of forestry, Nepal

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Kathmandu, Nepal
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Maharjan M.,University of Gottingen | Maharjan M.,Institute of forestry, Nepal | Sanaullah M.,University of Gottingen | Sanaullah M.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | And 2 more authors.
Applied Soil Ecology | Year: 2017

Land-use change, especially from forest to intensive agriculture, is negatively impacting soil quality and sustainability. Soil biological activities are sensitive indicators of such land-use impacts. We tested two hypotheses: i) land use and management practices affect microbial properties (microbial biomass and enzyme activities) in topsoil (0–20 cm), but have no effects in subsoil (20–100 cm); and ii) microbial properties in topsoil are highest in forest, followed by organic farming and then conventional farming. Total organic C and N contents as well as microbial biomass were significantly higher in the organic farming topsoil compared with conventional farming and forest. Except xylanase and acid phosphatase, enzyme activities (β-glucosidase, cellobiohydrolas, chitinase, sulfatase, leucine aminopeptidase and tyrosine aminopeptidase) were also higher in organic farming soil. Crop residues and rhizodeposits support higher microbial biomass, leading to enhanced enzyme activities in organic farming soil. Incorporation of rice stubble and limitation of available phosphorus explain the higher xylanase and acid phosphatase activities, respectively, in conventional farming soil. Litter removal leads to a deficiency of labile C and N, resulting in lower enzyme activities in forest soil. Total C and N contents were higher in subsoil under organic farming. Although there was no effect of land use on microbial biomass in subsoil, activities of most enzymes were higher under organic farming. Overall, our results indicate that land-use change significantly alters microbial properties in topsoil, with modest effects in subsoil. Microbial properties should be considered in environmental risk assessments and models as indicators of ecosystem disturbance caused by land-use and management practices. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.


Mandal R.A.,Trichandra Colledge | Dutta I.C.,Kathmandu University | Jha P.K.,Kathmandu University | Haque S.M.,Institute of forestry, Nepal
International Journal of Ecology and Development | Year: 2013

Public plantations are managed under agro-forestry system which is aligned with the purpose of REDD+ reward but it needs sufficient records of carbon. Thus, objectives of the study were to compare the carbon stocks of public plantations with neighboring sites, show the variation in mean annual increment carbon (MAIC) and explore changes in soil C, N, P and K after plantation. Three public plantations of Mahottary, Nepal were selected for study. Altogether 28 sample plots were randomly established navigating GPS coordinates in the quadrates of 10mx10m for pole and 1mx1m for litter and grasses. Height and diameter of pole were measured and samples of others were also collected. The soil samples were collected from the centre of the plot from 0- 0.1m, 0.1-0.3m and 0.30-0.60m depths simultaneously. There were significant differences in carbon stocks with 140.32 t ha-1 in plantation and 68.39 t ha-1 in neighboring site of Shreepur public plantation. The highest value of MAIC was found nearly 10.19 t ha-1 while the values of soil C and N were 31.46 t ha-1 and 98.41kg ha-1 respectively in 0-0.1m and decreased by soil depths in Shreepur site. Same trend was found in soil P and K to all sites. © 2013 IJED.


Chhetri B.B.K.,Institute of forestry, Nepal | Johnsen F.H.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences | Konoshima M.,University of Ryukyus | Yoshimoto A.,The Institute of Statistical Mathematics of Tokyo
Forest Policy and Economics | Year: 2013

Community forestry in Nepal is one of the most cited examples of participatory management of natural resources. However, such programs have not yet been able to fully ensure equitable, gender-sensitive, and poverty-focused outcomes. This study examines factors influencing participation of households in forest protection, resource utilization, and collective resource management decision-making activities. The study was conducted among five selected forest user groups in the Kaski District. The analysis is based on a household survey that included a random sample of 176 respondents (69 males and 107 females). Three ordered logit regression models were developed to examine determinants of household participation in forest protection, resource utilization, and decision-making activities. Analysis showed that larger sized households belonging to forest user groups that owned less land were more likely to participate in forest protection activities. Women from larger households located closer to forests and markets were more likely to participate in forest resource utilization activities. Households with more livestock belonging to forest user groups that managed forests in good condition were also more inclined to participate in resource utilization activities. Women and individuals from lower castes demonstrated lower levels of participation in decision-making processes. Low participation was associated with education level and traditional customs, which may result in low representation of some social groups in forest user group committees. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Baul T.K.,Chittagong University | Tiwari K.R.,Institute of forestry, Nepal | Atique Ullah K.M.,Pubali Bank Ltd | McDonald M.A.,Bangor University
Small-scale Forestry | Year: 2013

A survey was conducted to examine agrobiodiversity status of farms in the Pokhare Khola watershed of Dhading district in the Middle-Hills of Nepal. A total of 53 farmland tree and one crop species from 22 families were documented. The most commonly found species were fruit and fodder species (on over 60 % farms) including banana (Musa paradisiaca), khasrato (Ficus hispida) and khanayo (Ficus semicordata). Tree density was highest (226/ha) on marginal farms (farm area ≤0.25 ha) and lowest (165/ha) on small farms (farm area 0.26-0.5 ha). For the study area as a whole, the Shannon-Wiener species diversity index was 3.26 and the species evenness index 1.89. Large farms (farm area >1 ha) had the greatest tree species diversity (4.47 ± 0.52) and marginal farms the lowest (2.18 ± 0.37), indicating the positive relationship between farm size and species diversity. A total of six types of cereals and 18 types of vegetable crops were grown in the study area. The major livestock component of each household was chickens (average 8/household) and goats (6/household). The mean value of livestock in the large farm category was estimated as $2235, significantly higher than that of the other three categories. A significant relationship was found between agrobiodiversity and livelihoods, irrespective of annual production, and the critical role of the farmed landscape in agrobiodiversity conservation was apparent. © 2013 Steve Harrison, John Herbohn.


Chhetri B.B.K.,Institute of forestry, Nepal | Larsen H.O.,Copenhagen University | Smith-Hall C.,Copenhagen University
Small-scale Forestry | Year: 2012

Decentralised forest management is believed to hold potential for increased economic and social equity. Implications of the associated local forest law enforcement on livelihoods, however, are not well understood. This paper explores the impacts of local forest law enforcement with a focus on the poorest forest users in community-managed forests. A case study including 14 community forest groups in western Nepal was conducted in 2008. Methods included review of archival data, a stakeholder survey (n = 211), and recall of forest crimes by a random household sample (n = 252). Local forest law enforcement was found to detect far more crimes than district-level enforcement. Crimes are primarily small-scale unauthorised appropriation of products for subsistence use by poorer households and rules are lightly enforced. It is argued that local law enforcement, while apparently not economically harmful to the poorer in the short term, may be used to perpetuate existing wealth and cast-based social inequities. © 2011 Steve Harrison, John Herbohn.


Gyawali A.,Institute of forestry, Nepal | Sharma R.P.,Czech University of Life Sciences | Bhandari S.K.,Institute of forestry, Nepal
Journal of Forest Science | Year: 2015

The individual tree growth models are important decision-making tools in forestry. Age dependent and age independent individual tree basal area growth models were developed for Chir pine (Pinus roxberghii Sarg.) in one of the western districts, Rukum district, in Nepal. Data from thirty-five destructively sampled trees, which were representative of all possible stand densities, site productivities, age classes, and size classes of Chir pine forests in the district, were used. Sample trees were felled and diameters and ages were measured on the cut surface of the stump (at 30 cm above the ground). Since measurements from the same stump of a tree were strongly correlated, the autoregressive error structure modelling approach was applied while specifying the model in order to reduce bias. All parameter estimates of the models were significant (P < 0. 01) and the models described most of the variations of basal area growth (R2 adj 0.86). Residual graphs showed no serious systematic bias for all observed age classes and diameter classes. The age independent growth model showed relatively better fit statistics (R2 adj = 0.8751, RMSE = 4.8494) than its age dependent counterpart (R2 adj = 0.8668, RMSE = 5.0158). Because of being more precise and simpler, the age independent model is recommended to apply to both even-aged and uneven-aged stands of Chir pine in the district.


Wagle B.H.,Institute of forestry, Nepal | Sharma R.P.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences
Forest Science and Technology | Year: 2012

Individual tree growth models are important decision-making tools for forest management. We developed individual tree basal area growth models with Blue pine (Pinus wallichiana) data from Lete and Kunjo areas of Mustang district in Nepal. The sample trees were identified from all applicable ages, sizes, site qualities, and stand conditions and were cut. Diameters and ages were measured on the cut surface of stump (at 30 cm above ground). With the application of the auto-regressive error-structured modelling approach, we fitted Bertalanffy function to the data from 94 stumps by using basal area growth per year as dependent variable and stump age or stump diameter as independent variable. The age-independent individual tree basal area growth model showed better fits (R2 adj = 0.8324) than its agedependent counterpart (R2 adj = 0.8174). Because of having better fits and being easier for application, the ageindependent model is recommended for predicting basal area growth per year at an individual tree level for Blue pine across Lete and Kunjo areas of Mustang district. © 2012 Korean Forest Society.


Rai R.K.,Deakin University | Sandilya M.,Institute of forestry, Nepal | Subedi R.,Institute of forestry, Nepal
Journal of Ecology and Field Biology | Year: 2012

Mikania micrantha, a neo-tropical vine, is spreading rapidly in the tropical part of Nepal and is now threatening the rural ecosystem including biodiversity and rural livelihoods. However, no attempt has been made to control the spread of M. micrantha. As a result, the vines are spreading freely and rapidly. After a thorough literature review and assessment of forest management practices, we proposed a manual cutting method, as it suits the Nepalese situation for several reasons: required labor is readily available, as local communities are managing forest patches, and the method does not have any potential adverse effects on non-target native species. Experimental plots were laid out in August 2011 to examine the effectiveness of manual cutting. Two different site types based on canopy coverage were selected and divided into three blocks based on cutting strategy. Four treatments were assigned across the experimental plots following a complete block design. We harvested above-ground biomass according to the assigned treatment. The results suggested that there should be at least two consecutive cuttings within a 3-week interval before flowering, and that three consecutive cuttings resulted in 91% mortality of the vines. In addition, cutting promoted regeneration of native plant species. Employing regular cutting operations can modify understory shade enhancing regeneration of native species, which is a desirable condition to constrain proliferation of M. micrantha. Periodic cuttings reduced the competitiveness of M. micrantha regardless of canopy openness, but native ground cover should be retained. © The Ecological Society of Korea.


Prasada O.P.,Institute of forestry, Nepal | Hussin Y.A.,University of Twente | Weir M.J.C.,University of Twente | Karna Y.K.,Under Secretary Technology
International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences - ISPRS Archives | Year: 2016

This research was conducted to derive forest sample plot inventory parameters from terrestrial LiDAR (T-LiDAR) for estimating above ground biomass (AGB)/carbon stocks in primary tropical rain forest. Inventory parameters of all sampled trees within circular plots of 500 m2 were collected from field observations while T-LiDAR data were acquired through multiple scanning using Reigl VZ-400 scanner. Pre-processing and registration of multiple scans were done in RSCAN PRO software. Point cloud constructing individual sampled tree was extracted and tree inventory parameters (diameter at breast height-DBH and tree height) were measured manually. AGB/carbon stocks were estimated using Chave et al, (2005) allometric equation. An average 80% of sampled trees were detected from point cloud of the plots. The average of plots values of R2 and RMSE for manually measured DBHs were 0.95, 2.7 cm respectively. Similarly, the average of plots values of R2 and RMSE for manually measured trees heights were 0.77, 2.96 m respectively. The average value of AGB/carbon stocks estimated from field measurements and T-LiDAR manually derived DBHs and trees heights were 286 Mg ha-1 and 134 Mg ha-1; and 278 Mg ha-1 and 130 Mg ha-1 respectively. The R2 values for the estimated AGB and AGC were both 0.93 and corresponding RMSE values were 42.4 Mg ha-1 and 19.9 Mg ha-1 respectively. AGB and AGC were estimated with ±14.8% accuracy.


PubMed | International Union for Conservation of Nature, Institute of forestry, Nepal and Multi Stakeholder Forestry Programme
Type: | Journal: TheScientificWorldJournal | Year: 2016

Wetlands are the most productive ecosystem and provide wide arrays of wetland ecosystems (goods and services) to the local communities in particular and global communities in general. However, management of the wetland often does not remain priority and recognized as the unproductive waste land mainly due to poor realization of the economic value of the wetlands. Taking this into account, the study estimated the total economic value of the Jagadishpur Reservoir taking into account direct, indirect, and nonuse value. The study prioritized six major values of the reservoir which include wetland goods consumption, tourism, irrigation, carbon sequestration, biodiversity conservation, and conservation for future use (existence and option value). The study used market and nonmarket based valuation techniques to estimate total economic value of the reservoir. Household survey, focus group discussions, and interaction with the tourism entrepreneurs and district stakeholders were carried out to collect information. The study estimated the total annual economic value of the reservoir as NRs 94.5 million, where option/existence value remains main contributor followed by direct use value such as wetland goods and tourism and indirect use value, for example, carbon sequestration, biodiversity conservation, and irrigation. The study reveals that the local communities gave high importance to the future use value and are willing to make investment for conservation and restoration of reservoir given its conservation significance.

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