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Annadurai R.S.,R and nter | Jayakumar V.,Genotypic Technology Private Ltd | Mugasimangalam R.C.,Genotypic Technology Private Ltd | Katta M.A.V.S.K.,Genotypic Technology Private Ltd | And 7 more authors.
BMC Genomics

Background: Phyto-remedies for diabetic control are popular among patients with Type II Diabetes mellitus (DM), in addition to other diabetic control measures. A number of plant species are known to possess diabetic control properties. Costus pictus D. Don is popularly known as " Insulin Plant" in Southern India whose leaves have been reported to increase insulin pools in blood plasma. Next Generation Sequencing is employed as a powerful tool for identifying molecular signatures in the transcriptome related to physiological functions of plant tissues. We sequenced the leaf transcriptome of C. pictus using Illumina reversible dye terminator sequencing technology and used combination of bioinformatics tools for identifying transcripts related to anti-diabetic properties of C. pictus.Results: A total of 55,006 transcripts were identified, of which 69.15% transcripts could be annotated. We identified transcripts related to pathways of bixin biosynthesis and geraniol and geranial biosynthesis as major transcripts from the class of isoprenoid secondary metabolites and validated the presence of putative norbixin methyltransferase, a precursor of Bixin. The transcripts encoding these terpenoids are known to be Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor (PPAR) agonists and anti-glycation agents. Sequential extraction and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) confirmed the presence of bixin in C. pictus methanolic extracts. Another significant transcript identified in relation to anti-diabetic, anti-obesity and immuno-modulation is of Abscisic Acid biosynthetic pathway. We also report many other transcripts for the biosynthesis of antitumor, anti-oxidant and antimicrobial metabolites of C. pictus leaves.Conclusion: Solid molecular signatures (transcripts related to bixin, abscisic acid, and geranial and geraniol biosynthesis) for the anti-diabetic properties of C. pictus leaves and vital clues related to the other phytochemical functions like antitumor, anti-oxidant, immuno-modulatory, anti-microbial and anti-malarial properties through the secondary metabolite pathway annotations are reported. The data provided will be of immense help to researchers working in the treatment of DM using herbal therapies. © 2012 Annadurai et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Jayaraj R.S.C.,Institute of Forest Genetics and Tree Breeding
Australian Journal of Botany

Casuarina junghuhniana Miq., introduced into India in 1996, is gaining importance as an agroforestry species, with potential use in pulp and paper industry. Tree improvement of the species and attempts at clonal forestry are in progress. A hybrid of Casuarina equisetifolia L. and C. junghuhniana, introduced in 1951 from Thailand, is also planted in India, with the wrong identity as Casuarina junghuhniana. The present paper reviews the silviculture and tree improvement of the species, especially the attempts at introduction to various parts of the world by CSIRO, Australia, with special reference to India. The paper also attempts to resolve the confusion between the hybrid and the pure species, among the planting agencies in India. © 2010 CSIRO. Source

Veluthakkal R.,Institute of Forest Genetics and Tree Breeding | Dasgupta M.G.,Institute of Forest Genetics and Tree Breeding
Trees - Structure and Function

Trees occupy more than 30% of the land biosphere. They are important from both ecological and environmental standpoints and provide some of the most valuable commodities in the world economy. The perennial nature and size of trees are the critical determinants of their survival in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. The identification of the defense pathways at biochemical and genetic levels in tree pathosystems are beginning to be addressed. The basic physiological and biochemical mechanisms in woody perennials in response to pathogen is homologous to the model annual crop like Arabidopsis, but their secondary metabolic processes and ecological survival strategies are likely to be divergent from their annual counterparts. The limited domestication in tree species makes its molecular mechanisms less comparable to the highly pedigreed crop species. Recent reports have highlighted that the possible difference in genetic programs responding to invasive pathogens between annuals and perennials could be the spatial and temporal pattern of gene regulation. Several reviews on pathogen defense with reference to crop species are available, while similar reports from the tree species are limited to few commercially important species like Populus, Pinus, Picea, Eucalyptus, Castanea, and Pseudotsuga. This paper reviews the present status of pathogenesis-related genes and proteins from tree species with emphasis on the resistant genes and the proteins induced during systemic acquired resistance and highlights the ecological and evolutionary significance of defense-related genes from tree species. © 2010 Springer-Verlag. Source

Meena D.,Arid forest Research Institute | Binaibabu N.,Institute of Forest Genetics and Tree Breeding | Doss J.,Institute of Forest Genetics and Tree Breeding
International Journal of Conservation Science

An increase in the consumption of flora, in the name of medicine and timber, critically affects biodiversity, thereby drawing a multitude of indigenous plants to be endangered. Canarium strictum Roxb. is an indigenous and endemic plant species of Eastern and Western Ghats. It is a large, resinous tree species, commercially harvested for dammar, throughout South and South East Asia. Due to its overexploitation and the loss of habitat, it was found to be an endangered species and, therefore, required urgent attention for its conservation. Its traditional medicinal and spiritual importance helps yield references that make us understand its links with the culture and tradition of our country. This study was undertaken to bring about awareness among the harvesters and environmentalists, to take voluntary measures for the conservation of such red-listed plants, so that they remain available to the generations to come. Source

Veluthakkal R.,Institute of Forest Genetics and Tree Breeding | Dasgupta M.G.,Institute of Forest Genetics and Tree Breeding
Forest Pathology

Casuarina equisetifolia has the widest distribution of all Casuarina species and is a nitrogen-fixing tree of considerable social, economic and environmental importance. Trichosporium vesiculosum, a causal agent of blister bark disease, is a serious pathogen of C. equisetifolia. In this study, a cDNA clone encoding class I chitinase (CeChi1) belonging to PR-3 family was cloned and characterized from the needle tissues of C. equisetifolia challenged with the toxic exudate of the fungal pathogen T. vesiculosum. The CeChi1 open reading frame comprised 966 nucleotides that encoded 321 amino acid residues with the molecular mass of mature protein being approximately 34 kDa. Analysis of the predicted amino acid sequence revealed the similarity of CeChi1 protein to class I chitinase from other plant species containing a hydrophobic signal peptide domain and hinge domain. The sequence also harboured a cysteine-rich chitin-binding domain and lysozyme-like domain. A hydrophobic C-terminal domain similar to the vacuole targeting sequences of class I chitinases isolated from other plants was also detected. The genomic sequence of CeChi1 indicated that the coding region contained three exons and two introns. In silico analysis of the untranslated regions revealed the presence of several cis-acting regulatory elements associated with hormonal regulation and stress responses. Quantitative real-time PCR analyses at different time points showed upregulation of the transcript during pathogen elicitation and salicylic acid signalling. However, no significant expression of CeChi1 was observed during other abiotic stress condition including wounding, water deficit, salt and heat stress revealing the specific expression of the gene during pathogenesis. This is the first report on isolation of a gene from C. equisetifolia, and the detailed functional analyses of CeChi1 will help in understanding its specific role in defence against pathogens in this tropical tree species. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH. Source

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