IFER Institute of Forest Ecosystem Research

Jílové u Prahy, Czech Republic

IFER Institute of Forest Ecosystem Research

Jílové u Prahy, Czech Republic
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Cienciala E.,IFER Institute of Forest Ecosystem Research | Tumajer J.,IFER Institute of Forest Ecosystem Research | Tumajer J.,Charles University | Zatloukal V.,IFER Institute of Forest Ecosystem Research | And 4 more authors.
European Journal of Forest Research | Year: 2017

Decline or health deterioration of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) dominated forest stands has recently been observed mainly in sub-mountainous parts of Central Europe. Forest inventory of 208 randomly distributed circular plots including field observations of spruce tree health and rot symptoms by honey fungus (Armillaria ostoyae) was used for assessing intensity of spruce forest health decline in a managed forest area of 12.7 th. ha located in Beskids Mts., NE Czech Republic. First, principal component analysis was used to separate inventory variables related to environmental stress (reduced apical increment, dry tree top and stem resin exudation due to A. ostoyae infestation) into PC1, and health deterioration symptoms associated with mechanical damage (peeling, crown breaks) into PC2. The first two principal components explained 59% of the total variability in health decline symptoms. Spatial variability of both principal components was explained using spatial lag regression model identified from a set of environmental variables including sulfur and nitrogen deposition, elevation, solar radiation, age of the forest stands and geological properties (geochemical reactivity index). Environmental stress (PC1) was associated with low elevations (sub-optimal for spruce), high level of nitrogen and sulfur deposition (their interaction), low geochemical reactivity and also stand age. On the other hand, mechanical damage (PC2) significantly increased with elevation and stand age. As the forest decline in Beskids Mts. is related to A. ostoyae spreading from local infestation hot spots, both principal components had a significant spatial autocorrelation, partly distorting the signal of environmental conditions. The results indicate that the disturbed forest soils by long-term acid deposition and subsequent nutrient degradation and more pronounced drought stress at low elevations are the most important drivers of the recent spruce health decline in Beskids Mts. © 2017 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

Altman J.,Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic | Fibich P.,Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic | Fibich P.,University of South Bohemia | Santruckova H.,University of South Bohemia | And 9 more authors.
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2017

The growth response of trees to changing climate is frequently discussed as increasing temperatures and more severe droughts become major risks for forest ecosystems. However, the ability of trees to cope with the changing climate and the effects of other environmental factors on climate-growth relationships are still poorly understood. There is thus an increasing need to understand the ability of individual trees to cope with changing climate in various environments. To improve the current understanding, a large tree-ring network covering the whole area of the Czech Republic (in 7 × 7 km grids) was utilized to investigate how the climate-growth relationships of Norway spruce are affected by 1) various geographical variables, 2) changing levels of acidic deposition, 3) soil characteristics and 4) age, tree diameter and neighbourhood competition. The period from 1930 to 2013 was divided into four, 21-year long intervals of differing levels of acidic deposition, which peaked in the 1972–1993 period. Our individual-based, spatiotemporal, multivariate analyses revealed that spruce growth was mostly affected by drought and warm summers. Drought plays the most important negative role at lower altitudes, while the positive effect of higher temperature was identified for trees at higher altitudes. Increased levels of acidic deposition, together with geographical variables, were identified as the most important factors affecting climate-growth association. Tree age, tree size and soil characteristics also significantly modulate climate-growth relationships. The importance of all environmental variables on climate-growth relationships was suppressed by acidic deposition during periods when this was at a high level; growth was significantly more enhanced by spring and summer temperatures during these periods. Our results suggest that spruce will undergo significant growth reduction under the predicted climate changes, especially at the lower altitudes which lie outside of its natural range. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.

Ehrenbergerova L.,Mendel University in Brno | Kucera A.,Mendel University in Brno | Cienciala E.,IFER Institute of Forest Ecosystem Research | Trochta J.,The Silva Tarouca Research Institute | Volarik D.,Mendel University in Brno
Agroforestry Systems | Year: 2017

Coffee leaf rust (CLR), caused by Hemileia vastarix, is one of the most serious diseases of coffee plantations and cause great losses in coffee production. We aimed to examine coffee varieties, shade, age of coffee plants, coffee plant density and soil properties in relation to CLR infection. To do this, we established a total of 75 plots in three agroforestry coffee plantations in the central Peruvian Amazon. We gathered data there in 2011 (dry season) on the presence/absence of CLR; coffee variety; age and density of coffee plants, and also took hemispherical photographs to determine canopy openness. In 2014 (wet season), we again gathered data on the same variables. In 2012, we collected soil samples from a subset of the plots. At all plantations, coffee variety had a significant effect on CLR incidence, with the Catimor variety infected less frequently than Caturra. Coffee plant age had a significant positive effect on CLR incidence. Increasing coffee density also increased CLR incidence for some of the studied plantations/seasons. Comparing those plots from which data were collected in the dry and wet seasons, we found that CLR presence was significantly higher in the wet season. The effect of shade on CLR incidence was not clear. Catimor and Caturra varieties showed opposite trends of CLR incidence in response to shade quantity in most cases (Caturra variety CLR incidence was decreasing with shading increase and Catimor CLR incidence decreasing with decreasing shading). Finally, the soil properties did not affect CLR incidence. © 2017 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Barrett F.,Irish Forest Service | McRoberts R.E.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Tomppo E.,Natural Resources Institute Finland Luke | Cienciala E.,IFER Institute of Forest Ecosystem Research | Waser L.T.,Swiss Federal Institute of forest
Remote Sensing of Environment | Year: 2016

We report on the operational use of remotely sensed data by national forest inventory (NFI) programmes in 45 countries representing approximately 65% of the world's forest area. The analysis is based on responses to a questionnaire prepared under the auspices of COST Action FP1001 "Improving Data and Information on the Potential Supply of Wood Resources: A European Approach from Multisource National Forest Inventories (USEWOOD)". Responses were received from NFI remote sensing experts from both European and non-European countries. Three major conclusions were drawn from the study: (1) remote sensing now plays an essential role in many NFI programmes and provides data that can be used to enhance estimates for the most meaningful and commonly reported forest resource parameters; (2) a wide spectrum of remote sensing methods are currently used by NFI teams; and (3) although substantial effort and attention has been focused on the use of aerial photography and spaceborne sensor data for mapping and enhancing estimation, integration of uncertainly estimation requires additional attention. The operational use of remotely sensed data by NFI programmes is illustrated for three case studies: a case study for Switzerland focuses on digital aerial photography, a case study for Finland focuses on spaceborne sensor data for small area estimation, and a case study for the USA focuses on spaceborne sensor data for increasing the precision of large area estimates. Although use of remotely sensed data by NFI programmes may remain region-specific and some approaches are not readily transferable, generally applicable good practice guidelines were formulated on the basis of the questionnaire responses and the case studies. These guidelines are intended to promote better use of limited financial resources and to increase the accuracy and precision of NFI estimates. © 2015.

Krupkova L.,Global Change Research Institute CAS | Markova I.,Mendel University in Brno | Havrankova K.,Global Change Research Institute CAS | Pokorny R.,Global Change Research Institute CAS | And 5 more authors.
Trees - Structure and Function | Year: 2016

Key message: Radiation use efficiency values estimation based on the biomass increment (one approach) and on NPP from eddy covariance (two approaches) estimation of NPP brings the values of 0.13, 0.40, and 0.47 g (C) MJ−1, respectively.Abstract: The productivity of terrestrial ecosystems is primarily reliant on the absorption of solar radiation energy and its conversion into biomass. Monteith (1977) first introduced the concept of radiation use efficiency (RUE), which expresses the effectiveness of a plant stand to use solar radiation for the formation of new biomass and to maintain existing biomass. The presented paper uses a long-term, decadal, time series of biomass data, which is based on forest inventory data and an allometric relation, and on the application of eddy covariance (EC) estimation of Net Primary Production (NPP). These approaches provide different values of light use efficiency (LUE). LUE is based on direct carbon exchange estimation, LUEi, which denotes instantaneous efficiency based on the relationship between the daily sum of incident global radiation (GRi) and NPP and LUES, calculated as the ratio between the sum of NPP and the sum of GRi per growing season. RUE is based on direct yearly biomass increment expressed in carbon units (carbon = 0.5 × biomass) divided by the sum of GRi per year. The obtained values amount to 0.13, 0.40, and 0.47 g(C) MJ−1 for RUE, LUES, and LUEi, respectively. The higher value of LUEi reflects a direct relation with the efficiency of photosynthetic carbon pumping. In contrast, the RUE value, based on biomass inventories, is the result of woody mass formation that is caused by several mutually related physiological processes and “wastages” of radiation utilization. © 2016 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

Ehrenbergerova L.,Mendel University in Brno | Cienciala E.,IFER Institute of Forest Ecosystem Research | Kucera A.,Mendel University in Brno | Guy L.,MapGeoSolutions | Habrova H.,Mendel University in Brno
Agroforestry Systems | Year: 2015

Agroforestry has become an important land use type in Central and South America. It is important to study agroforestry systems because of their ability to sequester carbon. This study investigates plantations that are located in the foothills of the Peruvian Andes, and it evaluates the aboveground and soil carbon storage of agroforestry coffee plantations with different dominant shading trees, including Inga spp., Pinus spp. (both 15 years old) and Eucalyptus spp. (7 years old). These agroforestry systems were also compared to a coffee plantation without shading trees. Biomass and carbon were estimated for trees and coffee shrubs using allometric equations. Soil (within depth of 30 cm) and litter carbon were estimated using field sampling and laboratory analyses. The total carbon stock for the site dominated by Inga spp. was 119.9 ± 19.5 Mg ha−1, while for the sites dominated by Pinus spp. it was 177.5 ± 14.1 Mg ha−1 and for the site dominated by Eucalyptus spp. it was 162.3 ± 18.2 Mg ha−1. In the Sun coffee site the ecosystem carbon stock was 99.7 ± 17.2 Mg ha−1. Most carbon was fixed in the soil compartment (57–99 %), followed by aboveground tree biomass (23–32 %), tree belowground biomass (8–9 %), coffee shrubs (0.2–2 %) and litter (1 %). © 2015 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht

Brovkina O.,Mendel University in Brno | Brovkina O.,Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic | Latypov I.,Russian Academy of Sciences | Cienciala E.,IFER Institute of Forest Ecosystem Research
Journal of Applied Remote Sensing | Year: 2015

Tree crown size is a key parameter of tree structure that has a variety of uses, including assessment of stand density, tree growth, and amount of timber volume assessment. Remote sensing techniques provide a potentially low-cost alternative to field-based assessments, but require the development of algorithms to easily and accurately extract the required information. This study presents a method for average crown diameter estimation on a plot level based on high-resolution airborne data. The method consists of the combination of a window binarization procedure and a granulometric algorithm. This approach avoids the complicated crown delineation procedure that is currently used to estimate crown size. The method was applied to a spruce mountain forest and was verified on 23 reference plots. The method achieved best results of R2 = 76% [RMSE = 0.37 m (11.2% of the observed mean)] and R2 = 79% [RMSE = 0.49 m (16.7% of the observed mean)]. The study investigates the dependence of the algorithm results on the sun altitude of each image, and determines the optimal combination of spectral bands from hyperspectral airborne images for the application of the method. © 2015 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).

PubMed | University of South Bohemia, Czech Hydrometeorological Institute, Global Change Research Institute CAS, IFER Institute of Forest Ecosystem Research and 4 more.
Type: | Journal: The Science of the total environment | Year: 2016

We examined the effect of individual environmental factors on the current spruce tree growth assessed from a repeated country-level statistical landscape (incl. forest) survey in the Czech Republic. An extensive set of variables related to tree size, competition, site characteristics including soil texture, chemistry, N deposition and climate was tested within a random-effect model to explain growth in the conditions of dominantly managed forest ecosystems. The current spruce basal area increment was assessed from two consecutive landscape surveys conducted in 2008/2009 and six years later in 2014/2015. Tree size, age and competition within forest stands were found to be the dominant explanatory variables, whereas the expression of site characteristics, environmental and climatic drives was weaker. The significant site variables affecting growth included soil C/N ratio and soil exchangeable acidity (pH KCl; positive response) reflecting soil chemistry, long-term N-deposition (averaged since 1975) in combination with soil texture (clay content) and Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), a drought index expressing moisture conditions. Sensitivity of growth to N-deposition was positive, although weak. SPI was positively related to and significant in explaining tree growth when expressed for the growth season. Except SPI, no significant relation of growth was determined to altitude-related variables (temperature, growth season length). We identified the current spruce growth optimum at elevations about 800ma.s.l. or higher in the conditions of the country. This suggests that at lower elevations, limitation by a more pronounced water deficit dominates, whereas direct temperature limitation may concern the less frequent higher elevations. The mixed linear model of spruce tree growth explained 55 and 65% of the variability with fixed and random effects included, respectively, and provided new insights on the current spruce tree growth and factors affecting it within the environmental gradients of the country.

Brovkina O.,Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic | Latypov I.S.,Russian Academy of Sciences | Cienciala E.,IFER Institute of Forest Ecosystem Research | Fabianek T.,Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic
Journal of Applied Remote Sensing | Year: 2016

Automatic mapping of tree crown size (radius, diameter, or width) from remote sensing can provide a major benefit for practical and scientific purposes, but requires the development of accurate methods. This study presents an improved method for average tree crown diameter estimation at a forest plot level from high-resolution airborne data. The improved method consists of the combination of a window binarization procedure and a granulometric algorithm, and avoids the complicated crown delineation procedure that is currently used to estimate crown size. The systematic error in average crown diameter estimates is corrected with the improved method. The improved method is tested with coniferous, beech, and mixed-species forest plots based on airborne images of various spatial resolutions. The absolute (quantitative) accuracy of the improved crown diameter estimates is comparable or higher for both monospecies plots and mixed-species plots than the current methods. The ability of the improved method to produce good estimates for average crown diameters for monoculture and mixed species, to use remote sensing data of various spatial resolution and to operate in automatic mode promisingly suggests its applicability to a wide range of forest systems. © 2016 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).

Tatarinov F.A.,RAS A.N. Severtsov Institute of Ecology and Evolution | Cienciala E.,IFER Institute of Forest Ecosystem Research | Vopenka P.,IFER Institute of Forest Ecosystem Research | Avilov V.,Institute of Physicochemical and Biological Problems of Soil Science
Forest Ecology and Management | Year: 2011

The simulation of forest production until 2100 under different environmental scenarios and current management practices was performed using a process-based model BIOME-BGC previously parameterized for the main Central-European tree species: spruce, pine, beech and oak and adapted to include forest management practices. Climatic scenario HadCM3 used in the simulations was taken from the IPCC database created within the 3rd Assessment Report. It was combined with a scenario of CO 2 concentration development and a scenario of N deposition. The control scenario considered no changes of climatic characteristics, CO 2 concentration and N deposition. Simulation experiment was performed for the test region - South Bohemia - using a 1km×1km grid. The actual data on the regional forest cover were aggregated for each grid cell in such a way that each cell represented an even-aged single-dominant species stand or non-forested area, and a standard management scenario depending on the stand age and species was applied to each cell. The effect of environmental variables was estimated as the difference of simulated carbon pools and fluxes in 2050 under environmental changes and under control scenario.The model simulation for the period to 2050 with only climate change under constant CO 2 concentration and N deposition indicated a small decrease of NPP (median values by species reached -0.9 to -1.7% for different species), NBP (-0.3 to -1.7%) and vegetation carbon (-0.3 to -0.7%), whereas soil C slightly increased. Separate increase of N deposition gave small positive effect on carbon pools (0.8-2.9% for wood C and about 0.5% for soil C) and more expressed effect on carbon fluxes (1.8-4.3% for NPP and 1.0-9.7% for NBP). Separate increase of CO 2 concentration lead to 0.6-2.4% increase of wood C pool and 0.1-0.5% increase of soil C. The positive effects of CO 2 concentration and N deposition were more pronounced for coniferous than for deciduous stands.Replacement of 0.5% of coniferous plantations every year by natural broadleaved stands evoked 10.5% of increase of wood carbon pool due to higher wood density of beech and oak compared to spruce and pine, but slightly decreased soil and litter carbon pools. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

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