Kruševac, Serbia
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Vasileva V.,Institute of Forage Crops | Kostov O.,Nexus Technology Consultancy Sdn. Bhd.
Emirates Journal of Food and Agriculture | Year: 2015

The effect of low and high doses of mineral and organic fertilization on the quality of top yield and root mass of alfalfa and effect of mineral and organic fertilization on formation of quality of soil organic matter in dry condition were studied in a field trial. Alfalfa was grown on leached chernozem soil without irrigation at the experimental field of Institute of Forage Crops, Pleven, Bulgaria. The doses of 70, 140 and 210 kg/ha mineral nitrogen (active ingredient) were tested as ammonium nitrate and well-rotted cattle manure. It was found dry mass yield of alfalfa fertilized with manure was to 15.9% higher as compared to dry mass yield obtained from alfalfa fertilized with mineral fertilizer. Sustainable yield index showed the alfalfa crop was more stable under organic fertilization. Alfalfa accumulated to 6027 kg/ha dry root mass for 4-year period of growing. There was from 614 to 1371 kg/ha root mass additional with manure application. Manure treated plants showed higher values for nitrogen in dry root mass/nitrogen in dry aboveground mass ratio and plant available nitrogen. In addition to nitrogen alfalfa add a considerable amount of organic matter to the soil. Humic acids content after mineral fertilization increased to 50.0% as compared to unfertilized control and threefold after manure. Humus content in the soil after manure fertilization was from 10.9 to 41.9% higher as compared to humus content after mineral one.


The effect of mineral nitrogen fertilization and water deficiency stress on nitrogen content in yield in dry aboveground and root mass of forage lucerne was tested at the Institute of Forage Crops, Pleven, Bulgaria (2003-04). Mineral nitrogen fertilization at the doses of 40, 80, 120 and 160 mg N kg-1 soil was tested in pot trials. Nitrogen fertilizer was applied as ammonium nitrate. Ten-day water deficiency stress at the budding stage of lucerne was imposed by stopping the irrigation till soil moisture dropped to 37-40% FC. It was found that mineral nitrogen fertilization increased nitrogen in dry aboveground mass yield - for doses of 120 and 160 mg N kg-1 soil in the conditions of optimal moisture, by 21 and 37%; for doses of 120 and 80 mg N kg-1 soil and water deficiency stress, by 12 and 14%. Mineral nitrogen fertilization had a stronger effect on nitrogen in dry root mass yield compared with that in dry aboveground mass. The negative effect of water deficiency stress on nitrogen in dry aboveground and root mass was lowest when 80 mg N kg-1 was applied to the soil.


Stoycheva I.,Institute of Forage Crops | Kirilov A.,Institute of Forage Crops
Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science | Year: 2015

The impregnation of sheep at an early age is important for obtaining additional production of sheep (milk and lambs). The purpose of this study was the induction of synchronized oestrus and the comparison of the insemination and fertility of female lambs at 18 months of age and female lambs at 7-8 months of age in the current year of birth, using progesterone vaginal tampons in combination with serum gonadotropin (PMSG). In the experiment were used 30 female lambs of 18 months of age, with body weight of 48-50 kg and 30 female lambs of 7-8 months of age, with body weight of 38-40 kg of the Pleven Blackface sheep breed. After the 12-day stay of the vaginal tampons, and after their removal and treatment with PMSG, 98.3% of the sheep have shown signs of oestrus between 48 and 60 hours. It is observed that the impregnancy of those that have shown signs of oestrus is 69.0% (female lambs of 7-8 months of age), while with female lambs of 18 months of age the impregnancy is higher – 83.3%. The biological fertility, expressed by the number of lambs live born compared to the number of births is 160% with the female lambs of 7-8 months of age, while with the female of 18 months age, it is lower – 128%. The average impregnancy and fertility in both groups of animals is respectively 74.6% and 142.2%. There were no significant differences in the duration of pregnancy in female lambs at 7-8 months and female lambs at 18 months, respectively –147 and 149 days. The number of lambs of the same mother (type of birth) had no effect on the duration of pregnancy. © 2015, National Centre for Agrarian Sciences. All rights reserved.


The experimental study was conducted during the period of 2008-2010 at the experimental field of the Institute of Forage Crops in Pleven. The hybridization scheme included direct and back crosses covering four varieties of forage pea (Pisum sativum L.), namely two spring ones, Usatii 90 and Kamerton from Ukraine, and a winter one from Bulgaria, Pleven 10. There was analyzed the inheritance of quantitative traits such as plant height, height to first pod, pod number per plant, seed number per plant, seed number per pod, seed weight per plant and number of fertile nodes per plant of parental components (P1 and P2) and both first (F1) and second (F2) hybrid generations. The cross Usatii 90 x Pleven 10 showed the highest real heterosis effect for plant height (8.26%), pods per plant (158.79%), seeds per plant (272.16%), seeds per pod (42.09%), seed weight per plant (432.43%) and number of fertile nodes per plant (117.14%). The cross Pleven 10 x Usatii 90 had the highest real heterosis effect height to first pod (11.06%). In F2 plants, the strongest depression for plant height (5.88%), seeds per plant (57.88%), seeds per pod (55.93%) and seed weight per plant (55.99%) was in the cross Usatii 90 x Pleven 10, for height to first pod (1.47%) in the cross Kamerton x Pleven 10 and for number of fertile nodes per plant (15.91%) in the cross Pleven 10 x Usatii 90. The highest positive degree of transgression for number of fertile nodes per plant (165.64%) and seed weight per plant (162.10%) was in the cross Pleven 10 x Kamerton and for pod number per plant (102.54%) and seeds per plant (99.13%) in Kamerton x Pleven 10. The stability of the characters was determined. Low variability in F1 and F2 was found in plant height (3.97-6.85%). Variability of number seeds per plant in F1 was highest (11.86-33.23%). For all other traits, the variability varied from average to high. A lower narrow-sense heritability coefficient was observed for plant height, height to first pod, pods per plant, seeds per plant and seed weight per plant (from 0.001 to 0.230). In few cases, such as in fertile nodes per plant (0.39 and 0.81) and seeds per pod (0.44), the coefficients ofbroad-sense heritability were higher.


Nikolova I.M.,Institute of Forage Crops
Biological Agriculture and Horticulture | Year: 2015

Sitona lineatus L. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is an important pest of field vetch in Bulgaria. The response of vetch varieties to S. lineatus was determined on the basis of seedling vigour, plant phenological development and chemical analysis of the feed. The susceptibility to attack by S. lineatus of the vetch, Vicia sativa L., varieties, Liya, Loryna, Villena, Moldavskaya 82 and Vicia villosa Roth varieties, Violeta and Viola, was tested. Vetch varieties with high vitality and rapidly growing seedlings such as Liya and Loryna were considerably less preferred by S. lineatus. They were distinguished with low damage degree and leaf damage intensity. Weather conditions during the years affected population density and food activity of Sitona weevils as the harm was particularly great in the dry spring in 2013, when the plants had suppressed growth and did not develop normally. The least preferred variety with a low S. lineatus density was Liya followed by Loryna, which were characterized with the shortest vegetative season (67 days), high seedling vigour and high fibre content. The most preferred varieties with the highest density of weevils were winter varieties Violeta and Viola, which had high crude protein content. © 2015 Taylor & Francis


Nikolova I.M.,Institute of Forage Crops
Emirates Journal of Food and Agriculture | Year: 2016

A trial was conducted in the experimental field of the Institute of Forage Crops, Bulgaria, over the period 2012-2014 with alfalfa wich grew for seed production. It was studied the action of three insecticides (two biological/NeemAzal T/S and Pyrethrum FS EC/and one synthetic insecticide Nurelle D - standard) to a control of lucerne seed weevil, Tychius flavus Beck. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae); alfalfa plant bug, Adelphocoris lineolatus Goeze (Hemiptera, Heteroptera: Miridae) and pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum Harr. (Hemiptera, Sternorrhyncha: Aphididae) - major pests in alfalfa seed production. The method of sweeping with entomological net was used. Organic products were most effective against A. pisum. Increasing efficacy of NeemAzal reached satisfactory values of 67.8 and 69.1 percent of the seventh and ninth day after the application. Pyrethrum exhibited strong efficacy throughout the reporting period in the range 73.9-82.8% and differences between bioinsecticides were significant. In compared with standard its toxic action after the fifth day was approached the effect of synthetic insecticide with minor differences between them. Bioinsecticides exhibited good control against A. lineolatus as the trend of the better protective effect of Pyrethrum was retained. A dominant influence on the efficacy variation and seed productivity had the type of insecticide followed by factors year of treatment. The productivity of alfalfa grown for seed production realized after application of Pyrethrum significantly exceeded control and was comparable to that of Nurelle D.


Nikolova I.M.,Institute of Forage Crops
Irish Journal of Agricultural and Food Research | Year: 2015

Trials were conducted in 2011 and 2012 at the Institute of Forage Crops, Pleven, Bulgaria, in order to study the imaginal and possible ovicidal effect of some insecticides against Bruchus pisorum under field conditions. Treatments with insecticides were started after the appearance of the first pea weevils eggs on pods located on the bottom two nodes. It was found that treatment with acetamiprid; thiacloprid; thiacloprid+deltamethrin; 50 g cypermethrin+480 g chlorpyrifosethyl, 50 g cypermethrin+500 g chlorpyrifosethyl and zeta-cypermethrin resulted in the cessation of additional oviposition on the lower nodes by Bruchus pisorum, due to the toxic effect of the insecticides on the pea weevil. It was found that spraying with acetamiprid and zeta-cypermethrin was the most effective. These insecticides significantly reduced the proportion of infected pods in comparison with the proportion of pods with eggs before the treatment by 30.2 and 27.4% and by 15.8 and 24.0% in 2011 and 2012, respectively. The use of acetamiprid and zeta-cypermethrin was also associated with the lowest percentage of infected seeds (21.7 and 23.6%, respectively), with the lowest percentage of infected seed in infected pods (40.5 and 42.5%, respectively) and the highest weight of 1000 infected seeds (161.94 and 182.04 g, respectively). It was concluded that the management of pea weevils in the crop with acetamiprid and zetacypermethrin can lead to satisfactory results when spray timing is chosen when the first eggs are visible. © 2015, Teagasc. All rights reserved.


Vasileva V.,Institute of Forage Crops
Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science | Year: 2014

Changes in some charatcteristics of chemical composition of aboveground and root mass of soybean after presowing treatment of seeds with insecticides were studied in a pot trial carried out at the Institute of Forage Crops, Pleven, Bulgaria (2003-2004). Soybean cultivar Pavlikeny 121 was used and the next insecticide preparations were tested: Gaucho 600 FS (600 g.L-1 imidacloprid) (1, 2 and 3 L.100 kg-1 seeds), Carbodan 35 ST (350 g.L-1 carbofuran) (1, 2 and 3 L.100 kg-1 seeds), and Promet 400 CS (400 g.L-1 furathiocarb) (3 L.100 kg-1 seeds) (standard). It was found that Gaucho 600 FS at the dose of 1 L.100 kg-1 seeds increased crude protein content in aboveground mass by 14.0 g.kg-1 dry matter (DM) and in root mass by 22.6 g.kg-1 DM as compared to untreated control. Crude fiber content in aboveground mass increased by 28.0 g.kg-1 DM when Carbodan 35 ST at the dose of 3 L.100 kg-1 seeds was applied and decreased in root mass by 74.5 g.kg-1 DM for the same insecticide at the dose of 2 L.100 kg-1 seeds. Calcium content in aboveground mass was by 1.9 g.kg-1 DM higher as compared to untreated control for Gaucho 600 FS at the dose of 1 L.100 kg-1 seeds. When Carbodan 35 ST at the dose of 1 L.100 kg-1 seeds was applied, phosphorus content in aboveground mass increased by 0.20 g.kg-1 DM and in root mass by 0.28 g.kg-1 DM for Gaucho 600 FS at the dose of 1 L.100 kg-1. Chemical composition of plant biomass did not include the amount of possible residues after the using of insecticides. © National Centre for Agrarian Sciences. All rights reserved.


Georgieva N.A.,Institute of Forage Crops | Nikolova I.M.,Institute of Forage Crops
Journal of Central European Agriculture | Year: 2015

During the period 2006-2009 in IFC-Pleven were studied 9 alfalfa varieties: Europe, Prista 2, Prista 3, Prista 4, Obnova 10, Pleven 6, Dara, Multifoliate and Dama. In the first year of its development alfalfa formed on average 1.42 number of stems per plant. During second and third year their quantity increased to 2.14 and 3.83 number whereafter during fourth year they decreased to 3.28. In all years (except the first year) was found a trend of increase in stem number from spring to autumn regrowth with average values 2.11, 2.85 and 3.05 respectively. Average for the four-year period the greatest number of stems (over the average for the nine studied varieties – 2.67) formed the Multifoliate variety followed by Europe, Prista 4, Obnova 10 and Dama. The varieties which are characterized by less density of stand (number of plants per unit area) had a greater number of stems per plant (r = -0.530). Correlations with mean and high positive value were found between stem formation and amount and distributions of rainfall during vegetation period (r = 0.989), year of alfalfa development (r = 0.861), nodulation (r = 0.763), weight of root mass (r = 0.411) as well as correlations with mean negative value between number of stems and percentage of damaged stems by Apion seniculus (r = -0.456). © 2015, University of Zagreb - Faculty of Agriculture. All rights reserved.


Nikolova I.M.,Institute of Forage Crops | Georgieva N.A.,Institute of Forage Crops
Journal of Central European Agriculture | Year: 2015

It was evaluated the damage caused by Bruchus pisorum L (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) on the germination ability of pea farage varieties (Pisum sativum L.). Result of damage by Bruchus pisorum in seeds with parasitized larva was significant decrease of the germination by 16.4% percentage points, the length and weight of primary radicle by 16.8 and 24.5%, the length and weight of plumule by 12.3 and 14.1%, the vigor index of primary radicle and plumule by 32.5 and 32.8% as well as the germination index by 17.4%. The inhibitory effect was on average 17.8%. Essential significant changes in regard to the studied parameters were found for damaged seeds with bruchid emergence hole. In these seeds the gewrmination decrease by 58.3% percentage points, the length and weight of primary radicle by 34.1 and 36.2%, the length and weight of plumule by 31.8 and 34.3%, the vigor index of primary radicle and plumule by 81.1 and 82.1% as well as the germination index by 83.1%. The inhibitory effect was on average 58.3%. It was f ound that the damaged seeds with parasitoid emergence hole provided better possibility for growth and development of plants whereas the damaged seeds with bruchid emergence hole had significantly low germination, vigor and sowing characteristics. These seeds could not provide the establishment of well-garnished stand and stable yields. As tolerant to damage by Bruchus pisorum was distinguished Glyans variety for which the values of parameters related to germination and vigor of seeds were influenced in the lowest degree from the damage unlike the sensitive Pleven 4 variety. Dominant factor influencing germination ability of seeds for all analyzed parameters was the type of seeds compared to varietal appurtenance. © 2015, University of Zagreb – Faculty of Agriculture. All rights reserved.

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