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Morgano M.A.,Institute of Food Technology | Milani R.F.,Institute of Food Technology | Martins M.C.T.,University of Sao Paulo | Martins M.C.T.,University of Campinas | Rodriguez-Amaya D.B.,University of Campinas
Food Control | Year: 2011

This paper assesses the performance of a chemical method based on the Karl Fischer titration to determine the water content in samples of dehydrated honeybee-collected pollen. The following analysis parameters were investigated: extraction temperature, particle size, reaction time, and weight of a dried pollen sample. After optimization, the method was used to determine the water content of 154 samples of dried honeybee-collected pollen from different geographical regions of Brazil. The Karl Fischer titration method, performed using a solvent mixture of methanol and n-octanol (1:1 v/v) at 50 °C on pollen particles 600 μm in size produced the best results. Mean values for water content of the 154 samples of dried honeybee-collected pollen from 12 Brazilian regions ranged from 3% to 9%. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Arisseto A.P.,Institute of Food Technology | Vicente E.,Institute of Food Technology | de Figueiredo Toledo M.C.,Institute of Food Technology | de Figueiredo Toledo M.C.,University of Campinas
Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment | Year: 2010

Commercial baby food samples available on the Brazilian market (n = 31) were analysed for furan content using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method preceded by solid-phase microextraction. A limit of detection of 0.7μg kg-1, a limit of quantitation of 2.4μg kg-1, mean recoveries varying from 80% to 107%, and coefficients of variation ranging from 5.6% to 9.4% for repeatability and from 7.4% to 12.4% for within-laboratory reproducibility were obtained during an in-house validation. The levels of furan found in the samples were from not detected to 95.5 μg kg-1. Samples containing vegetables and meat showed higher furan levels as compared with those containing only fruits. An exposure assessment showed furan intakes up to 2.4 μg kg-1 body weight day-1 (99th percentile) for babies fed exclusively with commercial baby foods. Margins of exposure obtained from intakes estimated in this work indicated a potential public health concern. © 2010 Taylor & Francis.


Garcia L.C.,University of Campinas | Pereira L.M.,University of Campinas | de Luca Sarantopoulos C.I.G.,Institute of Food Technology | Hubinger M.D.,University of Campinas
Food and Bioprocess Technology | Year: 2010

Edible coatings can represent an alternative for extending post-harvest life of perishable fruits, as strawberries. In this work, the effect of cassava starch edible coatings, added or not of potassium sorbate, on mechanical properties, surface color, sensory acceptance, and respiration rate of strawberries was evaluated in order to choose the best coating conditions to minimally processed strawberries. Integrity and water-vapor resistance of the coatings were also evaluated. Three different concentrations of cassava starch (1%, 2%, and 3%) and two concentrations of potassium sorbate (0.05% and 0.10%) were used in the coatings formulations. Minimally processed strawberries without coating were used as control samples. The strawberries treated with different coatings and control fruits did not present differences regarding mechanical properties, surface color, and all the sensory attributes evaluated. A good integrity of cassava edible coatings on strawberries surface was observed for 2% and 3% starch concentration and the use of coatings, in these concentrations, reduced the strawberries respiration rate, representing a possibility to extend the shelf life of fruits. All coatings showed beneficial effects on increasing the water vapor resistance of the samples, but a significant increase was obtained only with the use of coating with 3% of starch. The potassium sorbate improved significantly the resistance to water vapor, but no differences were observed between the two concentrations studied. Based these results, the coatings with 3% of cassava starch and 3% of cassava starch +0.05% of potassium sorbate were those selected for future shelf life study of minimally processed strawberries. © 2010 Springer Science + Business Media, LLC.


Ferrari C.C.,Institute of Food Technology | Marconi Germer S.P.,Institute of Food Technology | Alvim I.D.,Institute of Food Technology | de Aguirre J.,Institute of Food Technology
Drying Technology | Year: 2013

The aim of this work was to evaluate the stability of anthocyanins and antioxidant activity of blackberry powder, obtained by spray drying, using maltodextrin, gum arabic, or a blend of both carrier agents over a period of 5 months. The inlet air temperature was 145°C and the concentration of carrier agent was 7% (w/w). Samples were stored at 25 or 35°C and at relative humidity of 32.8%. Anthocyanin degradation followed the first-order kinetic model. Temperature negatively influenced the stability of anthocyanins, because these pigments are highly thermosensitive. Antioxidant activity increased for the powders stored at 35°C, probably due to the occurrence of the Maillard reaction, leading to the formation of compounds with antioxidant activity. In general, maltodextrin provided greater stability for spray-dried blackberry powder, because particles produced with this carrier agent showed the longest half-life and the lowest anthocyanin degradation rate at 25°C. The use of maltodextrin or the combination of both carrier agents promoted better maintenance of antioxidant potential of blackberry powder. With regard to morphology, all of the samples exhibited a large number of irregular particles with spherical shapes, but powders produced with gum arabic presented the smallest size and shriveled surfaces, which probably affected their stability, resulting in faster anthocyanin degradation during storage. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.


Ferrari C.C.,Institute of Food Technology | Germer S.P.M.,Institute of Food Technology | Alvim I.D.,Institute of Food Technology | Vissotto F.Z.,Institute of Food Technology | de Aguirre J.M.,Institute of Food Technology
International Journal of Food Science and Technology | Year: 2012

The aim of this work was to study the effect of different carrier agents (maltodextrin, gum arabic or a blend of both carrier agents) on the physicochemical properties of blackberry powder produced by spray drying. Moisture content, anthocyanin retention, antioxidant activity, colour parameters, bulk and absolute density, porosity, wettability, sorption isotherms, particle size and morphology of blackberry powders were evaluated. The use of maltodextrin resulted in less hygroscopic powders with lower moisture content and better reconstitution properties. Powders produced with maltodextrin or a blend of maltodextrin and gum arabic presented the best anthocyanin retention and the highest antioxidant activity. Experimental data of water adsorption were well fitted to GAB model. All the samples exhibited a large number of irregular particles with spherical shapes. However, particles produced with gum arabic were smaller and showed more dented surfaces, which probably contributed to the increase in wettability values and lower pigments retention. © 2012 The Authors. International Journal of Food Science and Technology © 2012 Institute of Food Science and Technology.


Alvim I.D.,Institute of Food Technology | Stein M.A.,Institute of Food Technology | Koury I.P.,Institute of Food Technology | Dantas F.B.H.,Institute of Food Technology | Cruz C.L.C.V.,Institute of Food Technology
LWT - Food Science and Technology | Year: 2016

One of the functions of microencapsulation is the protection of sensitive substances. Many encapsulation methods can be employed for the same substance, and the degree of protection may vary according to the particle characteristics (i.e. dry or wet matrix, hydrophilic or hydrophobic surface, etc.). This study aimed to compare the characteristics of microparticles containing ascorbic acid (AA) by spray drying (SD; wall material: arabic gum) and spray chilling (SC; wall material: stearic acid + hydrogenated vegetable fat) to assess the degree of protection of the microstructures formed in their application in biscuits. The microparticles obtained by the two methods showed typical spherical morphologies and high polydispersity. The average diameters were 9.3 ± 0.2 and 31.2 ± 0.7 μm for SD and SC particles, respectively. The encapsulation efficiencies were high (>97%) for both samples. In the biscuits application, both structures suitably protected the AA (preservation of more than 85% of the added content of AA) compared with the addition of the free active substance (loss of 28% of AA). The SD microparticles providing a greater protective effect than the SC microparticles. Both microencapsulation methods can be used to obtain microparticles as potential protection vehicles in the application of sensitive substances in baked products. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


Mourad A.L.,Institute of Food Technology | Walter A.,University of Campinas
Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining | Year: 2011

Like any other manufactured product, the production of biofuels involves the consumption of several inputs along its production chain. Energy balance results are often contradictory mainly due to differences in the methodologies used for their calculation. Despite the lack of a national database, this paper is a first estimate of the energy balance of biodiesel from soybean in Brazil. Data collected from five plantations located in the state of São Paulo, with a total production of 2000 metric tonnes, along with information about the industrial production process, were taken into account for calculating the energy balance of soybean biodiesel. A renewability factor of 4.3 was found considering an input allocation factor of 18% up to the stage of soybean oil production. This result was compared to information available in the literature. © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Morgano M.A.,Institute of Food Technology | Rabonato L.C.,Institute of Food Technology | Milani R.F.,Institute of Food Technology | Miyagusku L.,Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul | Quintaes K.D.,Federal University of Ouro Preto
Food Control | Year: 2014

The presence of inorganic contaminants As, Cd, Cr, Hg and Pb was evaluated in 116 samples of muscles of seafood used for sashimi from Japanese restaurants in Campinas, SP, Brazil. Tuna (Thunnus thynnus), salmon (Salmo salar), mullet (Mugil platanus) and octopus (Octopus vulgaris) were the most common seafood species in these restaurants. Samples were digested in a microwave assisted system and the contaminants were determined by inductively coupled plasma (ICP OES). The percentage of samples above the maximum limit permitted by MERCOSUL and European regulations were: As (90% tuna, 48% salmon, 31% mullet and 100% octopus); Cd (61% octopus); Hg (7% tuna); Pb (6% mullet). Octopus and tuna were the sashimi that most contributed to arsenic and mercury intake, respectively. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Pavesi Arisseto A.,Institute of Food Technology | Vicente E.,Institute of Food Technology | Soares Ueno M.,Institute of Food Technology | Verdiani Tfouni S.A.,Institute of Food Technology | De Figueiredo Toledo M.C.,Institute of Food Technology
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2011

Brazilian green coffee beans of Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora species were roasted to light, medium, and dark roast degrees and analyzed in relation to furan content by using an in-house validated method based on gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry preceded by headspace solid-phase microextraction. Furan was not detected in green coffees, whereas levels between 911 and 5852 μg/kg were found in the roasted samples. Higher concentrations were found in Coffea canephora species and darker ground coffees. Some of the potential furan precursors were observed in significant amounts in green coffee, especially sucrose and linoleic acid, but their concentrations could not be correlated to furan formation. Additionally, coffee brews were prepared from roasted ground coffees by using two different procedures, and furan levels in the beverages varied from <10 to 288 μg/kg. The factor that most influenced the furan content in coffee brew was the brewing procedure. © 2011 American Chemical Society.


Nascimento M.S.,Institute of Food Technology | Brum D.M.,Institute of Food Technology | Pena P.O.,Institute of Food Technology | Berto M.I.,Institute of Food Technology | Efraim P.,University of Campinas
International Journal of Food Microbiology | Year: 2012

The high heat resistance of Salmonella in foods with low water activity raises particular issues for food safety, especially chocolate, where outbreak investigations indicate that few colony-forming units are necessary to cause salmonellosis. This study evaluated the efficiency of cocoa roasting and milk chocolate conching in the inactivation of Salmonella 5-strain suspension. Thermal resistance of Salmonella was greater in nibs compared to cocoa beans upon exposure at 110 to 130. °C. The D-values in nibs were 1.8, 2.2 and 1.5-fold higher than those calculated for cocoa beans at 110, 120 and 130. °C. There was no significant difference (p >. 0.05) between the matrices only at 140. °C. Since in the conching of milk chocolate the inactivation curves showed rapid death in the first 180. min followed by a lower inactivation rate, and two D-values were calculated. For the first time interval (0-180. min) the D-values were 216.87, 102.27 and 50.99. min at 50, 60 and 70. °C, respectively. The other D-values were determined from the second time interval (180-1440. min), 1076.76. min at 50. °C, 481.94. min at 60. °C and 702.23. min at 70. °C. The results demonstrated that the type of matrix, the process temperature and the initial count influenced the Salmonella resistance. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

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