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Bellido-Munoz F.,University of Seville | Giraldez-Gallego A.,University of Seville | Roca-Oporto C.,University of Seville | Garcia-Cayuela T.,Institute of Food Science Research CSIC UAM | And 2 more authors.
Transplantation Proceedings | Year: 2012

Objectives: To perform a prospective analysis of changes in liver stiffness (LS) using transient elastography (TE) in a consecutive series of patients with post-liver transplant (LT) recurrent hepatitis C, either left to their natural evolution or receiving antiviral treatment. Methods: We examined the results from 17 comparisons of TE (baseline vs follow-up) from 11 patients. We evaluated: (1) upon inclusion in the study: age, sex, genotype, time transpired since LT, and baseline fibrosis (F0-4; Scheuer), and (2) during the follow-up period: time elapsed between the two TE and either specific treatment (B) or absence of treatment (A). Results: Mean patient age was 56.8 ± 7.9 years, with a male/female ratio of 10:1. Ten of the eleven patients had genotype 1b. The median time transpired between the LT and inclusion in the study was 28 months (range: 6-142 months). The mean time transpired between the two TE was 11.3 ± 4.5 months. In the 11 patients from group A (9 F1/2 F2; 13 "paired" TE), a predictable increase in LS was produced in 10 cases and a paradoxical result was produced in 3 cases. In the four patients in group B (3 F2/1 F1; 4 "paired" TE), a decrease in LS was produced in 3 cases and a paradoxical result in 1 case. Conclusions: In our study of patients left to their natural evolution, a slow increase of LS was normal. However, antiviral treatment appeared to decrease LS. TE can be very useful as a complementary test to biopsy for monitoring post-LT recurrent hepatitis C. A longer follow-up period and larger sample size could confirm these preliminary results. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Golay P.-A.,Nestle | Moulin J.,Nestle | Alewijn M.,RIKILT Institute of Food Safety | Braun U.,MUVA | And 16 more authors.
Journal of AOAC International | Year: 2016

A collaborative study was conducted on AOAC First Action Method 2012.13 "Determination of Labeled Fatty Acids Content in Milk Products and Infant Formula by Capillary Gas Chromatography," which is based on an initial International Organization for Standardization (ISO)-International Dairy Federation (IDF) New Work Item that has been moved forward to ISO 16958:2015 | IDF 231:2015 in November 2015. It was decided to merge the two activities after the agreement signed between ISO and AOAC in June 2012 to develop common standards and to avoid duplicate work. The collaborative study was performed after having provided highly satisfactory single-laboratory validation results [Golay, P.A., & Dong, Y. (2015) J. AOAC Int. 98, 1679-1696] that exceeded the performance criteria defined in AOAC Standard Method Performance Requirement (SMPR®) 2012.011 (September 29, 2012) on 12 products selected by the AOAC Stakeholder Panel on Infant Formula (SPIFAN). After a qualification period of 1 month, 18 laboratories participated in the fatty acids analysis of 12 different samples in duplicate. Six samples were selected to meet AOAC SPIFAN requirements (i.e., infant formula and adult nutritionals in powder and liquid formats), and the other Six samples were selected to meet ISO-IDF requirements (i.e., dairy products such as milk powder, liquid milk, cream, butter, infant formula with milk, and cheese). The fatty acids were analyzed directly in all samples without preliminary fat extraction, except in one sample (cheese). Powdered samples were analyzed after dissolution (i.e., reconstitution) in water, whereas liquid samples (or extracted fat) were analyzed directly. After addition of the internal standards solution [C11:0 fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) and C13:0 triacylglycerols (TAG)] to the samples, fatty acids attached to lipids were transformed into FAMEs by direct transesterification using methanolic sodium methoxide. FAMEs were separated using highly polar capillary GLC and were identified by comparison with the retention times of pure analytical standards. Quantification of fatty acids was done relative to C11:0 FAME as internal standard and to instrument response factors (determined separately using calibration standards mixture). The performance of the method (i.e., transesterification) was monitored in all samples using the second internal standard, C13:0 TAG. RSDR values were summarized separately for labeled fatty acids in SPIFAN materials and ISO-IDF materials due to different expression of results. This method was applied to representative dairy, infant formula, and adult/pediatric nutritional products and demonstrated global acceptable reproducibility precision for all fatty acids analyzed (i.e., 46 individuals and/or groups) for these categories of products.

Zielinski H.,Polish Academy of Sciences | Del Castillo M.D.,Institute of Food Science Research CSIC UAM | Przygodzka M.,Polish Academy of Sciences | Ciesarova Z.,VUP Food Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
Food Chemistry | Year: 2012

Changes in chemical composition and antioxidative properties of rye ginger cakes during their shelf-life were investigated in this study. In particular, the changes in antioxidants content, antioxidative and reducing capacity, and Maillard reaction development in rye ginger cakes after long-term storage were addressed. Ginger cakes produced according to the traditional and current recipe were stored for 5 years at room temperature in a dark place. The total phenolic compounds (TPC), inositol hexaphosphate (IP6), reduced (GSH) and oxidised glutathione (GSSG) contents, antioxidant and reducing capacity and Maillard reaction products (MRPs) were determined in ginger cakes after storage and then compared to those measured after baking. After long-term storage a decrease in TPC and IP6 contents in cakes was noted. In contrast, an increase in antioxidative and reducing capacity of stored cakes was observed. Long-term storage induced formation of furosine, advanced and final Maillard reaction products and caused changes in both reduced and oxidised forms of glutathione. After long-term storage the modest changes in furosine, FAST index and browning in ginger cake formulated with dark rye flour may suggest that this product is the healthiest among others. Therefore, traditional rye ginger cakes can be considered as an example of a healthy food that is also relatively stable during long term storage as noted by the small chemical changes observed in its composition. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Aleixandre A.,Complutense University of Madrid | Miguel M.,Institute of Food Science Research CSIC UAM
Food and Function | Year: 2016

In the past few years, new strategies to control blood pressure levels are emerging by developing new bioactive components of foods. Fiber has been linked to the prevention of a number of cardiovascular diseases and disorders. β-Glucan, the main soluble fiber component in oat grains, was initially linked to a reduction in plasma cholesterol. Several studies have shown afterward that dietary fiber may also improve glycaemia, insulin resistance and weight loss. The effect of dietary fiber on arterial blood pressure has been the subject of far fewer studies than its effect on the above-mentioned variables, but research has already shown that fiber intake can decrease arterial blood pressure in hypertensive rats. Moreover, certain fibers can improve arterial blood pressure when administered to hypertensive and pre-hypertensive subjects. The present review summarizes all those studies which attempt to establish the antihypertensive effects of dietary fiber, as well as its effect on other cardiovascular risk factors. © 2016 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Srey C.,Queens University of Belfast | Haughey S.A.,Queens University of Belfast | Connolly L.,Queens University of Belfast | Del Castillo M.D.,Institute of Food Science Research CSIC UAM | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2010

The present study was designed to compare surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and ultraperformance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) methods for the analysis of Nε-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML) in glucose-bovine serum albumin (BSA) model systems and to investigate the possible inhibitory effect of selected compounds (α-tocopherol, ferulic acid, rutin, thiamin, thiamin monophosphate, and thiamin pyrophosphate) on CML formation. The reported levels of CML detected were dependent upon the method of analysis employed. The highest reported concentrations were obtained with the SPR biosensor, whereas the lowest were found by ELISA. However, a high correlation was observed between these two immunochemical procedures. CML concentrations were dependent upon the type and concentration of the candidate CML inhibitor. All inhibitory compounds investigated, with the exception of α-tocopherol, decreased the level of CML formation in the glucose-BSA system. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

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