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Sanchez D.,Complutense University of Madrid | Miguel M.,Institute of Food Science Research CIAL CSIC | Aleixandre A.,Complutense University of Madrid
Journal of Medicinal Food

The consumption of dietary fiber (DF) has increased since it was related to the prevention of a range of illnesses and pathological conditions. DF can modify some gut hormones that regulate satiety and energy intake, thus also affecting lipid metabolism and energy expenditure. Among these gut hormones are ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide 1, peptide YY, and cholecystokinin. Adipose tissue is known to express and secrete a variety of products known as "adipocytokines," which are also affected by DF. Some of the most relevant adipocytokines include adiponectin, leptin, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-6. The release of adipocytokines, by either adipocytes or macrophage-infiltrated adipose tissue, leads to a chronic subinflammatory state that could play a central role in the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, therefore increasing the risk of cardiovascular disease associated with obesity. DF modulation of these molecules could also have positive effects on obesity, insulin resistance, and hyperlipidemia. This review is focused on the effects of DF on the above-mentioned gut peptides and adipocytokines. © Copyright 2012, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. and Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition 2012. Source

Herrero M.,Institute of Food Science Research CIAL CSIC | Ibanez E.,Institute of Food Science Research CIAL CSIC
Journal of Supercritical Fluids

The present contribution is based on a presentation given at the Workshop on Supercritical Fluids and Energy (SFE'13), in the Panel devoted to Green Chemistry and Sustainable Technologies, and on the discussions that occurred in the panel. Through the discussion of some selected examples related to the extraction of bioactives from marine sources (specifically seaweeds and microalgae) combining green solvents and compressed fluids conditions, several ideas are presented as a way to improve processes towards sustainability. The role of compressed fluids is discussed and emphasized together with the development of a green processing platform able to fulfil the requirements for a sustainable framework in which processes can fit more efficiently, basically through a biorefinery approach. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

Castro-Puyana M.,Institute of Food Science Research CIAL CSIC | Herrero M.,Institute of Food Science Research CIAL CSIC
TrAC - Trends in Analytical Chemistry

Robust, efficient, sensitive and cost-effective analytical methodologies need to be developed continuously to guarantee food safety, quality and traceability. The rapid development of metabolomics-based approaches using mass spectrometry (MS) has demonstrated their potential to face these challenges. This review presents a critical overview of the most recent applications of MS-based metabolomics approaches for food quality, safety and traceability assays, covering the most relevant works published from 2010 to 2013. We also provide information about the different steps needed to develop a MS-metabolomics approach (i.e. sample treatment, analytical platform, and data processing). © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Miron T.L.,University of Galati | Herrero M.,Institute of Food Science Research CIAL CSIC | Ibanez E.,Institute of Food Science Research CIAL CSIC
Journal of Chromatography A

In this work enzyme-assisted extraction (EAE) and pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) are applied for extraction of natural compounds from lemon balm (Melissa officinalis). Cellulase, endo-β-1,4 xylanase and pectinase were studied in order to degrade cell wall of lemon balm leaves and to release phenolic compounds. On the other hand, in order to compare the performance obtained with EAE, PLE using water and ethanol was employed maintaining 150°C as extraction temperature. The obtained extracts were characterized in terms of antioxidant capacity by using DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) in vitro assays, whereas the Folin-Ciocalteu procedure was employed to estimate the total phenols content. On the other hand, extracts were chemically characterized by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The results showed that EAE enhanced the total phenolic content and the antioxidant capacity compared to a non-enzymatic control. PLE extracts presented higher amount of phenols and antioxidant capacity than enzyme-assisted extracts, reaching the highest values on water extracts (193.18mggallicacid/gextract and EC50=6.81μg/mL). Among the bioactive phenolic compounds identified in lemon balm, rosmarinic acid was the main component, although other important compounds were also identified, such as caffeic acid derivatives (salvianolic acids, lithospermic acid) and rosmarinic acid derivatives (rosmarinic acid hexoside, sagerinic acid, sulfated rosmarinic acid). The present study confirms that EAE and PLE can be considered alternative methods for the extraction of natural compounds with biological activity from natural sources. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source

Reyes F.A.,University of Santiago de Chile | Mendiola J.A.,Institute of Food Science Research CIAL CSIC | Ibanez E.,Institute of Food Science Research CIAL CSIC | Del Valle J.M.,University of Santiago de Chile
Journal of Supercritical Fluids

Microalgae represent diverse branch of microorganism that can produce a wide range of unique functional ingredients that can be used in food, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, and energy. Among them, Haematococcus pluvialis is known for accumulating the highest levels of a potent natural antioxidant, astaxanthin, which has demonstrated positive health effects. Therefore, the aim of numerous studies has been to develop novel and efficient extraction techniques to produce high-quality (purity and antioxidant activity) extracts, while complying with the Green Chemistry Principles. Supercritical CO2 (scCO2) emerges as an alternative to organic solvents because of its high selectivity and bioactivity-preserving qualities. Nevertheless, astaxanthin is a large molecule with low solubility in scCO2 that usually requires long extractions at high pressures. Ethanol has been used as co-solvent to increase astaxanthin solubility in scCO2. In this work, a Box-Behnken experimental design was used to study the effects of operating pressure (20-35 MPa), temperature (40-70 °C), and ethanol content in scCO2 (0-13%, w/w) on the yield, astaxanthin content, and antioxidant activity of H. pluvialis extract. Results showed that ethanol content in CO2 has a more significant effect on all responses than pressure and temperature. These results lead us to investigate the effect of a further increase in ethanol content, up to the region of gas-expanded liquids. We studied the effects of temperature (30-60 °C) and ethanol content (50-70%, w/w) at a fixed pressure (7 MPa) on the same response variables using CO2-expanded ethanol (CXE). Results showed that temperature and ethanol content had a significant influence on astaxanthin yield and antioxidant activity. Also, the overall responses of CXE surpassed scCO2 extractions to match conventional extraction with acetone, maintaining high quality extracts, thus validating the use of this new type of green technology for extraction of high-value compounds. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source

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