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Caceres P.J.,Institute of Food Science | Martinez-Villaluenga C.,Institute of Food Science | Amigo L.,Institute of Food Science Research | Frias J.,Institute of Food Science
Food Chemistry | Year: 2014

Germinated brown rice (GBR) is considered a healthy alternative to white rice in the fight against chronic diseases. As the functional quality of GBR depends on genotype and germination conditions, the objectives were to identify suitable Ecuadorian brown rice cultivars and optimal germination time and temperature to maximise γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), total phenolics compounds (TPC) and antioxidant activity of GBR. Regression models for the prediction of phytochemical composition and antioxidant activity in GBR were also obtained. Germination improved GABA, TPC and antioxidant activity in all cultivars. Maximum GABA and antioxidant activity were attained at 34 C for 96 h, while the highest TPC was found at 28 C for 96 h in all cultivars. GBR cv. GO displayed the highest antioxidant activity and cv. 15 was the most effective at accumulating GABA and TPC in the optimal germination conditions. Therefore, Ecuadorian GBR could be used for the preparation of functional foods serving as preventative strategies in combating chronic diseases. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Hurtado-Benavides A.,University of Narino | Dorado D.A.,University of Narino | Sanchez-Camargo A.D.P.,Institute of Food Science Research
Journal of Supercritical Fluids | Year: 2016

In the present work, the extraction of oil from roasted coffee beans using supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2) under different conditions of pressure (15-30 MPa) and temperature (40-60°C) was studied. A central composite experimental design was employed in order to establish the effect of these parameters on the yield and fatty acids composition that was determined by gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (GC-FID). The aroma was analyzed by headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME). The optimum oil yield was 8.9%, obtained at 33.1 MPa and 35.9°C. The main fatty acids identified were palmitic (46.1%), linoleic (32.9%), oleic (8.0%), stearic (6.6%) and arachidic (1.9%). The volatile compounds of the coffee oil belong mainly to the family of furans and pyrazines, which maintain the particular features of the roasted coffee. This fact makes the coffee oil attractive to be used in the food and/or cosmetic industry. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Martos G.,Institute of Food Science Research | Pineda-Vadillo C.,Institute of Food Science Research | Miralles B.,Institute of Food Science Research | Alonso-Lebrero E.,Hospital Gregorio Maranon | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2012

Riboflavin binding protein (RfBP) is a minor protein in hen egg; its potential involvement in egg allergy has seldom been studied. The aim of this work was to investigate the IgE binding capacity of RfBP before and after simulated gastrointestinal digestion. It was shown that digestion of RfBP mainly occurred during the gastric phase. The protein fragments resulting from the subsequent duodenal phase remained linked through disulfide bonds. Both the intact protein and its digests were subjected to inhibition ELISA with sera obtained from patients allergic to egg. The results revealed significant IgE binding to intact RfBP, whereas the digests showed reduced but substantial IgE binding levels, with serum-to-serum variability. The RfBP digests were then subjected to immunoblot with allergic patients' sera, and the IgE-reactive peptides were further analyzed by MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry for sequence determination. The RfBP sequence 41-84 was identified as a novel IgE binding peptide in patients allergic to egg. © 2012 American Chemical Society.


Plaza M.,Institute of Food Science Research | Santoyo S.,Institute of Food Science Research | Jaime L.,Institute of Food Science Research | Avalo B.,University Simon Rodriguez | And 5 more authors.
LWT - Food Science and Technology | Year: 2012

Chlorella vulgaris has been referred as a potential source of bioactive compounds (carotenoids and fatty acids). In this work, the ability of an environmentally friendly extraction technique such as Pressurized Liquid Extraction (PLE) and a traditional extraction technique such as Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction (UAE) to obtain functional compounds from C. vulgaris, at analytical scale, has been demonstrated. Seeked bioactivities were antioxidant and antimicrobial, for their interest in the food industry. Therefore, a methodology including analytical extraction, in-vitro assays and chemical characterization via HPLC-DAD and GC-MS has been used to determine the interest of Chlorella as a source of functional food ingredients. Results demonstrated that PLE provide higher yields than UAE while similar bioactivities were obtained. Important concentration of carotenoids (lutein, neoxanthin, β-carotene, etc.), chlorophylls, sterols, phytols, and fatty acids (among others) have been found in Chlorella extracts that could be correlated to the observed biological activity. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Miralles B.,Institute of Food Science Research | Mengibar M.,Complutense University of Madrid | Harris R.,Complutense University of Madrid | Heras A.,Complutense University of Madrid
Food Chemistry | Year: 2011

A colorimetric method previously described for the determination of chitosan has been evaluated because lack of linearity had been observed at certain concentrations. Calibration curves of varied-characteristic chitosans, recovery studies and chitosan quantification in seven commercial dietary supplements have been performed. Some analysis conditions including the solvent of the samples have been studied and optimised. Different data combinations have been checked in order to select the widest range of concentrations where no serial correlation was found. With the selected conditions the method is linear, reproducible and provides reliable results in the analysis of the chitosan content in capsules. Its selectivity has been proved by the lack of interference with other compounds present in the dietary supplements. But in the case of tablet products, the presence of cellulose and magnesium stearate may produce an underestimation of the chitosan content. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Quiros A.,Institute of Food Science Research | Hernandez-Ledesma B.,Institute of Food Science Research | Ramos M.,Institute of Food Science Research | Martin-alvarez P.J.,Institute of Food Science Research | Recio I.,Institute of Food Science Research
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2012

This study evaluates the potential ability of proteolytic enzymes to release the antihypertensive peptide HLPLP, β-casein f(134-138), from caseinate. Corolase PP (Röhm GmbH & Co. KG, Darmstadt, Germany) was found as the most appropriate enzyme to produce this peptide. The optimization of the main experimental variables involved in the process [concentration of Corolase PP, concentration of Peptidase 433P (Biocatalysts Ltd., Parc Nantgarw, UK), and the hydrolysis time on the HLPLP concentration, expressed as area of peak] were studied using a central composite face design. The optimum conditions to obtain the maximum concentration of HLPLP provided by the statistical program were a concentration of Corolase PP of 60. mg/g of protein and hydrolysis time of 24. h. The use of the Peptidase 433P did not increase the amount of the active peptide. The obtained hydrolysate might be used as functional ingredient with antihypertensive properties. © 2012 American Dairy Science Association.


Solis M.-T.,CSIC - Biological Research Center | Rodriguez-Serrano M.,CSIC - Biological Research Center | Meijon M.,University of Oviedo | Canal M.-J.,University of Oviedo | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Experimental Botany | Year: 2012

Stress-induced plant cell reprogramming involves changes in global genome organization, being the epigenetic modifications key factors in the regulation of genome flexibility. DNA methylation, accomplished by DNA methyltransferases, constitutes a prominent epigenetic modification of the chromatin fibre which is locked in a transcriptionally inactive conformation. Changes in DNA methylation accompany the reorganization of the nuclear architecture during plant cell differentiation and proliferation. After a stress treatment, in vitro-cultured microspores are reprogrammed and change their gametophytic developmental pathway towards embryogenesis, the process constituting a useful system of reprogramming in isolated cells for applied and basic research. Gene expression driven by developmental and stress cues often depends on DNA methylation; however, global DNA methylation and genome-wide expression patterns relationship is still poorly understood. In this work, the dynamics of DNA methylation patterns in relation to nuclear architecture and the expression of BnMET1a-like DNA methyltransferase genes have been analysed during pollen development and pollen reprogramming to embryogenesis in Brassica napus L. by a multidisciplinary approach. Results showed an epigenetic reprogramming after microspore embryogenesis induction which involved a decrease of global DNA methylation and its nuclear redistribution with the change of developmental programme and the activation of cell proliferation, while DNA methylation increases with pollen and embryo differentiation in a cell-type-specific manner. Changes in the presence, abundance, and distribution of BnMET1a-like transcripts highly correlated with variations in DNA methylation. Mature zygotic and pollen embryos presented analogous patterns of DNA methylation and MET1a-like expression, providing new evidence of the similarities between both developmental embryogenic programmes. © 2012 The Author(s). © 2012 The Authors.


Santos J.,University of Porto | Mendiola J.A.,Institute of Food Science Research | Oliveira M.B.P.P.,University of Porto | Ibanez E.,Institute of Food Science Research | Herrero M.,Institute of Food Science Research
Journal of Chromatography A | Year: 2012

The simultaneous analysis of fat- and water-soluble vitamins from foods is a difficult task considering the wide range of chemical structures involved. In this work, a new procedure based on a sequential extraction and analysis of both types of vitamins is presented. The procedure couples several simple extraction steps to LC-MS/MS and LC-DAD in order to quantify the free vitamins contents in fresh-cut vegetables before and after a 10-days storage period. The developed method allows the correct quantification of vitamins C, B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, B9, E and provitamin A in ready-to-eat green leafy vegetable products including green lettuce, ruby red lettuce, watercress, swiss chard, lamb's lettuce, spearmint, spinach, wild rocket, pea leaves, mizuna, garden cress and red mustard. Using this optimized methodology, low LOQs were attained for the analyzed vitamins in less than 100min, including extraction and vitamin analysis using 2 optimized procedures; good repeatability and linearity was achieved for all vitamins studied, while recoveries ranged from 83% to 105%. The most abundant free vitamins found in leafy vegetable products were vitamin C, provitamin A and vitamin E. The richest sample on vitamin C and provitamin A was pea leaves (154mg/g fresh weight and 14.4mg/100g fresh weight, respectively), whereas lamb's lettuce was the vegetable with the highest content on vitamin E (3.1mg/100g fresh weight). Generally, some losses of vitamins were detected after storage, although the behavior of each vitamin varied strongly among samples. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Montero L.,Institute of Food Science Research | Herrero M.,Institute of Food Science Research | Prodanov M.,Institute of Food Science Research | Ibanez E.,Institute of Food Science Research | Cifuentes A.,Institute of Food Science Research
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry | Year: 2013

In this work, the development and optimization of a new methodology to analyze grape seed procyanidins based on the application of two-dimensional comprehensive LC is presented. This two-dimensional method involves the use of a microbore column containing a diol stationary phase in the first dimension coupled to either a C18 partially porous short column or a C18 monolithic column in the second dimension. The orthogonal hydrophilic interaction×reversed phase liquid chromatography (HILIC×RPLC) system is interfaced through a ten-port two-position switching valve. The optimized HILIC×RP-LC separation followed by diode array and tandem mass spectrometry detection (HILIC×RP-LC-DAD-MS/MS) made possible the direct analysis of a complex grape seed extract and allowed the tentative identification of 43 flavan-3-ols, including monomers and procyanidin oligomers till a polymerization degree of 7 units with different galloylation degrees. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that this powerful analytical technique is employed to characterize complex procyanidin samples. This work successfully demonstrates the great capabilities of the HILIC×RP-LCDAD- MS/MS coupling for the direct analysis of very complex natural samples like grape seeds. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012.


Corzo-Martinez M.,Institute of Food Science Research | Garcia-Campos G.,Institute of Food Science Research | Montilla A.,Institute of Food Science Research | Moreno F.J.,Institute of Food Science Research
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2016

This work addresses a novel and efficient bioconversion method for the utilization of tofu whey permeate (TWP), an important byproduct from the soybean industry, as a precursor of high value-added ingredients such as prebiotic fructooligosaccharides and novel fructosylated α-galactosides. This process is based on the high capacity of the commercial enzyme preparation Pectinex Ultra SP-L to transfructosylate the main carbohydrates present in TWP as sucrose, raffinose, and stachyose to produce up to a maximum of 164.2 g L-1 (equivalent to 57% with respect to initial sucrose, raffinose, and stachyose contents in TWP) of fructooligosaccharides and fructosylated α-galactosides in a balanced proportion. Raffinose- and stachyose-derived oligosaccharides were formed by elongation from the nonreducing terminal fructose residue up to three fructosyl groups bound by β-(21) linkages. These results could provide new findings on the valorization and upgrading of the management of TWP and an alternative use of raw material for the production of FOS and derivatives. © 2016 American Chemical Society.

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