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News Article | May 3, 2017
Site: www.chromatographytechniques.com

Let it be no misunderstanding: heavy alcohol intake has severe harmful effects. But already for several years, researchers have been finding that moderate wine intake can be beneficial in delaying the onset of cognitive impairments in aging and neurodegenerative diseases like Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease. Dr. Esteban-Fernández from the Institute of Food Science Research in Madrid and her colleagues have been investigating the molecular mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective actions of wine, recently published in Frontiers in Nutrition. Instead of investigating wine directly, they studied the compounds that are left after the wine has passed through the gut: the so-called wine-derived human gut metabolites. They selected some of these metabolites based on their presence in the urine and feces of people consuming wine on a regular and moderate basis. To explore the neuronal effect of these compounds, they added them to human cells under stress conditions that normally lead to neuronal cell dysfunction and death. These conditions are related to the initial stages of some neurodegenerative disorders. They found that the metabolites are protecting the cells from dying due to the stress conditions. The most striking result, however, was that the metabolites are active at different points in the cell signaling cascade that is leading to this cell death. The exact composition of the wine metabolites is therefore important in the protective neuronal effect. And this composition depends on your gut microbiota composition, as the intestinal flora breaks down the wine into the different metabolites. "In other words, differences in our gut microbiota are leading to the different metabolites. Which underpins the idea that humans benefit from food in different ways," Esteban-Fernández explained. "This individual difference is a factor not to be neglected to understand the health effects of certain foods. We are now in need to advance our understanding of the effect of diet in the promotion of normal brain function." "It is very important to understand that certain food compounds are responsible for this health benefit in protecting against the onset of neurodegenerative diseases; no medication was involved. I am not advocating to replace medicines by diet, but I want to raise more awareness how your diet is helping to prevent diseases or reduces the risk of getting sick. It is more than feasible to go to the supermarket and buy vegetables and fruit: it depends only on the individuals to maintain a balanced diet." As she works on the role of diet in health maintenance and disease prevention,  Esteban-Fernández takes her own nutrition very serious. "I am really aware about the importance of a healthy diet enriched in vegetables, fruits, and reduced industrial saturated fats. Although I try to maintain my dietary habits as good as possible, I think it is also important to not get too obsessed. Society is nowadays full of false myths about diet, and it is the role of both science and media to avoid the spread of these rumors, as well as make people aware of the importance of diet for your health."


News Article | May 3, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

Let it be no misunderstanding: heavy alcohol intake has severe harmful effects. But already for several years, researchers have been finding that moderate wine intake can be beneficial in delaying the onset of cognitive impairments in aging and neurodegenerative diseases like Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease. Dr. Esteban-Fernández from the Institute of Food Science Research in Madrid and her colleagues have been investigating the molecular mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective actions of wine, recently published in Frontiers in Nutrition. Instead of investigating wine directly, they studied the compounds that are left after the wine has passed through the gut: the so-called wine-derived human gut metabolites. They selected some of these metabolites based on their presence in the urine and feces of people consuming wine on a regular and moderate basis. To explore the neuronal effect of these compounds, they added them to human cells under stress conditions that normally lead to neuronal cell dysfunction and death. These conditions are related to the initial stages of some neurodegenerative disorders. They found that the metabolites are protecting the cells from dying due to the stress conditions. The most striking result, however, was that the metabolites are active at different points in the cell signaling cascade that is leading to this cell death. The exact composition of the wine metabolites is therefore important in the protective neuronal effect. And this composition depends on your gut microbiota composition, as the intestinal flora breaks down the wine into the different metabolites. "In other words, differences in our gut microbiota are leading to the different metabolites. Which underpins the idea that humans benefit from food in different ways", Dr. Esteban-Fernández explains. "This individual difference is a factor not to be neglected to understand the health effects of certain foods. We are now in need to advance our understanding of the effect of diet in the promotion of normal brain function." "It is very important to understand that certain food compounds are responsible for this health benefit in protecting against the onset of neurodegenerative diseases; no medication was involved. I am not advocating to replace medicines by diet, but I want to raise more awareness how your diet is helping to prevent diseases or reduces the risk of getting sick. It is more than feasible to go to the supermarket and buy vegetables and fruit: it depends only on the individuals to maintain a balanced diet." As she works on the role of diet in health maintenance and disease prevention, Dr. Esteban-Fernández takes her own nutrition very serious. "I am really aware about the importance of a healthy diet enriched in vegetables, fruits, and reduced industrial saturated fats. Although I try to maintain my dietary habits as good as possible, I think it is also important to not get too obsessed. Society is nowadays full of false myths about diet, and it is the role of both science and media to avoid the spread of these rumors, as well as make people aware of the importance of diet for your health."


News Article | May 3, 2017
Site: www.chromatographytechniques.com

Let it be no misunderstanding: heavy alcohol intake has severe harmful effects. But already for several years, researchers have been finding that moderate wine intake can be beneficial in delaying the onset of cognitive impairments in aging and neurodegenerative diseases like Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease. Dr. Esteban-Fernández from the Institute of Food Science Research in Madrid and her colleagues have been investigating the molecular mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective actions of wine, recently published in Frontiers in Nutrition. Instead of investigating wine directly, they studied the compounds that are left after the wine has passed through the gut: the so-called wine-derived human gut metabolites. They selected some of these metabolites based on their presence in the urine and feces of people consuming wine on a regular and moderate basis. To explore the neuronal effect of these compounds, they added them to human cells under stress conditions that normally lead to neuronal cell dysfunction and death. These conditions are related to the initial stages of some neurodegenerative disorders. They found that the metabolites are protecting the cells from dying due to the stress conditions. The most striking result, however, was that the metabolites are active at different points in the cell signaling cascade that is leading to this cell death. The exact composition of the wine metabolites is therefore important in the protective neuronal effect. And this composition depends on your gut microbiota composition, as the intestinal flora breaks down the wine into the different metabolites. "In other words, differences in our gut microbiota are leading to the different metabolites. Which underpins the idea that humans benefit from food in different ways," Esteban-Fernández explained. "This individual difference is a factor not to be neglected to understand the health effects of certain foods. We are now in need to advance our understanding of the effect of diet in the promotion of normal brain function." "It is very important to understand that certain food compounds are responsible for this health benefit in protecting against the onset of neurodegenerative diseases; no medication was involved. I am not advocating to replace medicines by diet, but I want to raise more awareness how your diet is helping to prevent diseases or reduces the risk of getting sick. It is more than feasible to go to the supermarket and buy vegetables and fruit: it depends only on the individuals to maintain a balanced diet." As she works on the role of diet in health maintenance and disease prevention,  Esteban-Fernández takes her own nutrition very serious. "I am really aware about the importance of a healthy diet enriched in vegetables, fruits, and reduced industrial saturated fats. Although I try to maintain my dietary habits as good as possible, I think it is also important to not get too obsessed. Society is nowadays full of false myths about diet, and it is the role of both science and media to avoid the spread of these rumors, as well as make people aware of the importance of diet for your health."


News Article | May 8, 2017
Site: www.thedrinksbusiness.com

A study recently published in the science journal Frontiers in Nutrition, led by Dr. Esteban-Fernández from the Institute of Food Science Research in Madrid, set out to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective actions of wine. Rather than focusing on the wine itself, researchers studied the compounds that are left after the wine has passed through the gut, known as metabolites. The team identified these metabolites based on their presence in the urine and faeces of people consuming wine on a regular to moderate basis. These metabolites were then added to human neurones, with researchers inducing stress to simulate the conditions that usually lead to neuronal death and neurodegenerative diseases. They found that the wine-derived metabolites prevented the neurones from dying under stress. Furthermore, the metabolites were found to be active at different points during the cell signalling process, which ultimately leads to neuronal death. According to the researchers, this means that the exact composition of the wine metabolites is crucial for this protective effect, and that this composition depends on the composition of the gut microbiome – that is, the trillions of microorganisms living inside our intestines. “In other words, differences in our gut microbiota are leading to the different metabolites. Which underpins the idea that humans benefit from food in different ways,” said Dr. Esteban-Fernández. “This individual difference is a factor not to be neglected to understand the health effects of certain foods. We are now in need to advance our understanding of the effect of diet in the promotion of normal brain function.” While wine-derived metabolites were found to assist and protect neurones from degeneration, their effectiveness was dependent on an undetermined combination of other microbes in the gut, achieved through a balanced and healthy diet. However Esteban-Fernández did not give any indication as to what these foods might be. “It is very important to understand that certain food compounds are responsible for this health benefit in protecting against the onset of neurodegenerative diseases; no medication was involved,” added Esteban-Fernández. “I am not advocating to replace medicines by diet, but I want to raise more awareness how your diet is helping to prevent diseases or reduces the risk of getting sick. It is more than feasible to go to the supermarket and buy vegetables and fruit: it depends only on the individuals to maintain a balanced diet.”


News Article | May 4, 2017
Site: www.biosciencetechnology.com

Let it be no misunderstanding: heavy alcohol intake has severe harmful effects. But already for several years, researchers have been finding that moderate wine intake can be beneficial in delaying the onset of cognitive impairments in aging and neurodegenerative diseases like Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease. Dr. Esteban-Fernández from the Institute of Food Science Research in Madrid and her colleagues have been investigating the molecular mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective actions of wine, recently published in Frontiers in Nutrition. Instead of investigating wine directly, they studied the compounds that are left after the wine has passed through the gut: the so-called wine-derived human gut metabolites. They selected some of these metabolites based on their presence in the urine and feces of people consuming wine on a regular and moderate basis. To explore the neuronal effect of these compounds, they added them to human cells under stress conditions that normally lead to neuronal cell dysfunction and death. These conditions are related to the initial stages of some neurodegenerative disorders. They found that the metabolites are protecting the cells from dying due to the stress conditions. The most striking result, however, was that the metabolites are active at different points in the cell signaling cascade that is leading to this cell death. The exact composition of the wine metabolites is therefore important in the protective neuronal effect. And this composition depends on your gut microbiota composition, as the intestinal flora breaks down the wine into the different metabolites. "In other words, differences in our gut microbiota are leading to the different metabolites. Which underpins the idea that humans benefit from food in different ways," Esteban-Fernández explained. "This individual difference is a factor not to be neglected to understand the health effects of certain foods. We are now in need to advance our understanding of the effect of diet in the promotion of normal brain function." "It is very important to understand that certain food compounds are responsible for this health benefit in protecting against the onset of neurodegenerative diseases; no medication was involved. I am not advocating to replace medicines by diet, but I want to raise more awareness how your diet is helping to prevent diseases or reduces the risk of getting sick. It is more than feasible to go to the supermarket and buy vegetables and fruit: it depends only on the individuals to maintain a balanced diet." As she works on the role of diet in health maintenance and disease prevention, Esteban-Fernández takes her own nutrition very serious. "I am really aware about the importance of a healthy diet enriched in vegetables, fruits, and reduced industrial saturated fats. Although I try to maintain my dietary habits as good as possible, I think it is also important to not get too obsessed. Society is nowadays full of false myths about diet, and it is the role of both science and media to avoid the spread of these rumors, as well as make people aware of the importance of diet for your health."


Caceres P.J.,Institute of Food Science | Martinez-Villaluenga C.,Institute of Food Science | Amigo L.,Institute of Food Science Research | Frias J.,Institute of Food Science
Food Chemistry | Year: 2014

Germinated brown rice (GBR) is considered a healthy alternative to white rice in the fight against chronic diseases. As the functional quality of GBR depends on genotype and germination conditions, the objectives were to identify suitable Ecuadorian brown rice cultivars and optimal germination time and temperature to maximise γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), total phenolics compounds (TPC) and antioxidant activity of GBR. Regression models for the prediction of phytochemical composition and antioxidant activity in GBR were also obtained. Germination improved GABA, TPC and antioxidant activity in all cultivars. Maximum GABA and antioxidant activity were attained at 34 C for 96 h, while the highest TPC was found at 28 C for 96 h in all cultivars. GBR cv. GO displayed the highest antioxidant activity and cv. 15 was the most effective at accumulating GABA and TPC in the optimal germination conditions. Therefore, Ecuadorian GBR could be used for the preparation of functional foods serving as preventative strategies in combating chronic diseases. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Miralles B.,Institute of Food Science Research | Mengibar M.,Complutense University of Madrid | Harris R.,Complutense University of Madrid | Heras A.,Complutense University of Madrid
Food Chemistry | Year: 2011

A colorimetric method previously described for the determination of chitosan has been evaluated because lack of linearity had been observed at certain concentrations. Calibration curves of varied-characteristic chitosans, recovery studies and chitosan quantification in seven commercial dietary supplements have been performed. Some analysis conditions including the solvent of the samples have been studied and optimised. Different data combinations have been checked in order to select the widest range of concentrations where no serial correlation was found. With the selected conditions the method is linear, reproducible and provides reliable results in the analysis of the chitosan content in capsules. Its selectivity has been proved by the lack of interference with other compounds present in the dietary supplements. But in the case of tablet products, the presence of cellulose and magnesium stearate may produce an underestimation of the chitosan content. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Solis M.-T.,CSIC - Biological Research Center | Rodriguez-Serrano M.,CSIC - Biological Research Center | Meijon M.,University of Oviedo | Canal M.-J.,University of Oviedo | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Experimental Botany | Year: 2012

Stress-induced plant cell reprogramming involves changes in global genome organization, being the epigenetic modifications key factors in the regulation of genome flexibility. DNA methylation, accomplished by DNA methyltransferases, constitutes a prominent epigenetic modification of the chromatin fibre which is locked in a transcriptionally inactive conformation. Changes in DNA methylation accompany the reorganization of the nuclear architecture during plant cell differentiation and proliferation. After a stress treatment, in vitro-cultured microspores are reprogrammed and change their gametophytic developmental pathway towards embryogenesis, the process constituting a useful system of reprogramming in isolated cells for applied and basic research. Gene expression driven by developmental and stress cues often depends on DNA methylation; however, global DNA methylation and genome-wide expression patterns relationship is still poorly understood. In this work, the dynamics of DNA methylation patterns in relation to nuclear architecture and the expression of BnMET1a-like DNA methyltransferase genes have been analysed during pollen development and pollen reprogramming to embryogenesis in Brassica napus L. by a multidisciplinary approach. Results showed an epigenetic reprogramming after microspore embryogenesis induction which involved a decrease of global DNA methylation and its nuclear redistribution with the change of developmental programme and the activation of cell proliferation, while DNA methylation increases with pollen and embryo differentiation in a cell-type-specific manner. Changes in the presence, abundance, and distribution of BnMET1a-like transcripts highly correlated with variations in DNA methylation. Mature zygotic and pollen embryos presented analogous patterns of DNA methylation and MET1a-like expression, providing new evidence of the similarities between both developmental embryogenic programmes. © 2012 The Author(s). © 2012 The Authors.


Santos J.,University of Porto | Mendiola J.A.,Institute of Food Science Research | Oliveira M.B.P.P.,University of Porto | Ibanez E.,Institute of Food Science Research | Herrero M.,Institute of Food Science Research
Journal of Chromatography A | Year: 2012

The simultaneous analysis of fat- and water-soluble vitamins from foods is a difficult task considering the wide range of chemical structures involved. In this work, a new procedure based on a sequential extraction and analysis of both types of vitamins is presented. The procedure couples several simple extraction steps to LC-MS/MS and LC-DAD in order to quantify the free vitamins contents in fresh-cut vegetables before and after a 10-days storage period. The developed method allows the correct quantification of vitamins C, B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, B9, E and provitamin A in ready-to-eat green leafy vegetable products including green lettuce, ruby red lettuce, watercress, swiss chard, lamb's lettuce, spearmint, spinach, wild rocket, pea leaves, mizuna, garden cress and red mustard. Using this optimized methodology, low LOQs were attained for the analyzed vitamins in less than 100min, including extraction and vitamin analysis using 2 optimized procedures; good repeatability and linearity was achieved for all vitamins studied, while recoveries ranged from 83% to 105%. The most abundant free vitamins found in leafy vegetable products were vitamin C, provitamin A and vitamin E. The richest sample on vitamin C and provitamin A was pea leaves (154mg/g fresh weight and 14.4mg/100g fresh weight, respectively), whereas lamb's lettuce was the vegetable with the highest content on vitamin E (3.1mg/100g fresh weight). Generally, some losses of vitamins were detected after storage, although the behavior of each vitamin varied strongly among samples. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Montero L.,Institute of Food Science Research | Herrero M.,Institute of Food Science Research | Prodanov M.,Institute of Food Science Research | Ibanez E.,Institute of Food Science Research | Cifuentes A.,Institute of Food Science Research
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry | Year: 2013

In this work, the development and optimization of a new methodology to analyze grape seed procyanidins based on the application of two-dimensional comprehensive LC is presented. This two-dimensional method involves the use of a microbore column containing a diol stationary phase in the first dimension coupled to either a C18 partially porous short column or a C18 monolithic column in the second dimension. The orthogonal hydrophilic interaction×reversed phase liquid chromatography (HILIC×RPLC) system is interfaced through a ten-port two-position switching valve. The optimized HILIC×RP-LC separation followed by diode array and tandem mass spectrometry detection (HILIC×RP-LC-DAD-MS/MS) made possible the direct analysis of a complex grape seed extract and allowed the tentative identification of 43 flavan-3-ols, including monomers and procyanidin oligomers till a polymerization degree of 7 units with different galloylation degrees. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that this powerful analytical technique is employed to characterize complex procyanidin samples. This work successfully demonstrates the great capabilities of the HILIC×RP-LCDAD- MS/MS coupling for the direct analysis of very complex natural samples like grape seeds. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012.

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