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Tabernero M.,Hospital La Paz Health Research Institute | Venema K.,TNO | Maathuis A.J.H.,TNO | Saura-Calixto F.D.,Institute of Food Science and Technology and Nutrition ICTAN CSIC
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2011

Metabolite production and antioxidant released during colonic fermentation of naturally occurring dietary fiber (DF) from two European diets (Mediterranean and Scandinavian) were determined. With this aim, DF and associated components were isolated from both whole diets, as well as from cereals and fruits and vegetables comprising the diets. DF was used as substrate for colonic fermentation in a dynamic in vitro model of the colon, samples were collected, and fermentation metabolites were analyzed. Statistical differences between samples were observed in the concentrations of short-chain fatty acids and ammonia and in the ratio acetate/propionate/butyrate. Whole grain cereal DF generated a larger amount of propionate than refined flour cereal DF. Fruit and vegetable DF generated higher amounts of butyrate than cereal DF. Most antioxidant compounds were released from DF during in vitro colonic fermentation. It is concluded that different sources of DF may play a specific role in health maintenance mediated by metabolites produced during colonic fermentation. © 2011 American Chemical Society. Source

Saura-Calixto F.,Institute of Food Science and Technology and Nutrition ICTAN CSIC
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2011

The literature addresses dietary fiber (DF) and antioxidants (AOX) separately as nonrelated compounds. This paper proposes to show that DF and AOX could be approached jointly in nutrition and health studies because around 50% of the total dietary antioxidants, mainly polyphenolics, traverse the small intestine linked to dietary fiber. These antioxidants have received little attention so far. They release the fiber matrix in the colon by the action of the bacterial microbiota, producing metabolites and an antioxidant environment. The content of polyphenols associated with DF in different foods and their potential health-related properties, including animal experiments and human trials, are reviewed. It is concluded that the transportation of dietary antioxidants through the gastrointestinal tract may be an essential function of DF. © 2010 American Chemical Society. Source

Diaz-Rubio M.E.,Institute of Food Science and Technology and Nutrition ICTAN CSIC | Saura-Calixto F.,Institute of Food Science and Technology and Nutrition ICTAN CSIC
International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition | Year: 2011

Beverages are generally not taken into account to determine the intakes of dietary fibre (DF) in diets. Soluble dietary fibre (SDF) content was determined in common alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages ranging from 0.18 g/l in white wine to 9.01 g/l in instant coffee and their contribution to the DF intake in the Spanish Mediterranean diet was estimated as 2.13 g/person/day. It is concluded that beverages provide an appreciable amount of SDF in the diet, and the omission of its contribution may lead to underestimate DF intakes. © 2011 Informa UK, Ltd. Source

Bodelon O.G.,Institute of Food Science and Technology and Nutrition ICTAN CSIC | Avizcuri J.-M.,University of La Rioja | Fernandez-Zurbano P.,University of La Rioja | Dizy M.,University of La Rioja | Prestamo G.,Institute of Food Science and Technology and Nutrition ICTAN CSIC
LWT - Food Science and Technology | Year: 2013

The effect of pressurization and cold storage of strawberry purée on colour, anthocyanins, ascorbic acid and pectin methylesterase was investigated. Samples were treated at pressures of 100, 200, 300 and 400 MPa, at two temperatures, 20 °C and 50 °C, for 15 min. Ascorbic acid content remained fairly constant after all the high pressure treatments in comparison to the control. However, the values of the samples pressurized at 50 °C were lower than the samples pressurized at 20 °C. Concentration of anthocyanins remained similar after all pressure treatments at both temperatures. Pectin methylesterase decreased in the samples pressurized at 50 °C, and it is remarkable that with this enzyme inactivation a gel-network formation in the strawberry purée was not found. However, a gel-network was observed in the control and in all the samples pressurized at 20 °C throughout cold storage. Immediately after pressurization, strawberry colour showed significant differences between the two temperatures, but no differences were observed between pressures. However, after cold storage no significant differences were observed, for hue and chroma parameters, between the samples pressurized at the two temperatures. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Martin M.A.,Institute of Food Science and Technology and Nutrition ICTAN CSIC | Goya L.,Institute of Food Science and Technology and Nutrition ICTAN CSIC | Ramos S.,Institute of Food Science and Technology and Nutrition ICTAN CSIC
Food and Chemical Toxicology | Year: 2013

Prevention of cancer through the diet is receiving increasing interest, and cocoa because of its polyphenolic compounds has become an important potential chemopreventive and therapeutic natural agent. Cocoa and its main polyphenols have been reported to interfere at the initiation, promotion and progression of cancer. Cocoa flavonoids have been demonstrated to influence several important biological functions in vitro and in vivo by their free radical scavenging ability or through the regulation of signal transduction pathways to stimulate apoptosis and to inhibit inflammation, cellular proliferation, apoptosis, angiogenesis and metastasis. Nevertheless, these molecular mechanisms of action are not completely characterized and many features remain to be elucidated. The aim of this review is to provide insights into the molecular basis of the potential chemopreventive activity of cocoa and its polyphenolic components by summarizing cell culture and animal models studies, as well as interventional and epidemiological studies on humans. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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