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San Juan de la Rambla, Spain

Saura-Calixto F.,Institute of Food Science
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry

Most research studies in the field of dietary polyphenols or phenolic compounds use a chemical approach focusing exclusively on polyphenols extracted from plant foods with organic solvents. However, an appreciable part of polyphenols are not extracted with organic solvents and thus are ignored in biological, nutritional, and epidemiological studies. Recent studies have shown that these nonextractable polyphenols (NEPP) are a major part of total dietary polyphenols and that they exhibit a significant biological activity. A physiological approach is proposed on the basis that the bioavailability and health-related properties of polyphenols depend on their solubility in intestinal fluids, which is different from their solubility in organic solvents. This paper tries to clarify the concept of NEPP, distinguishing between chemical and physiological approaches and pointing out the main qualitative and quantitative differences between them. It is stressed that the literature and databases refer to only extractable polyphenols. Greater attention to NEPP may fill the current gap in the field of dietary polyphenols. © 2012 American Chemical Society. Source

De Pascual-Teresa S.,Institute of Food Science
Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics

Anthocyanins are the main group of natural hydrosoluble pigments in plants. They introduce colouring to foods, with colours ranging from blue to red and orange. Nowadays, their importance for the Food and Pharmaceutical industries is mainly based in the existing scientific work evidencing their beneficial effects on the prevention of cardiovascular diseases and neurological conditions. Different mechanisms have been shown to be involved in those effects. The most consistent ones are related to their antihypertensive and endothelium protective activities, antiatherogenic activity and their interaction with the estrogenic receptor. In some of the existing work, studies on structure-activity relationship have been done, showing that modifications on the structure of anthocyanins, besides having an effect on their colours, have a clear incidence on their interaction with different steps in the principal pathways related to these diseases. Therefore, different colours might show different molecular mechanisms. However, in a normal diet most of these compounds are present simultaneously and, thus; they can act by different mechanisms but can rise to a common final action. Design of new food product or food supplements should take these potential synergies into consideration. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source

de Heredia F.P.,Institute of Food Science
The Proceedings of the Nutrition Society

Obesity shares with most chronic diseases the presence of an inflammatory component, which accounts for the development of metabolic disease and other associated health alterations. This inflammatory state is reflected in increased circulating levels of pro-inflammatory proteins, and it occurs not only in adults but also in adolescents and children. The chronic inflammatory response has its origin in the links existing between the adipose tissue and the immune system. Obesity, like other states of malnutrition, is known to impair the immune function, altering leucocyte counts as well as cell-mediated immune responses. In addition, evidence has arisen that an altered immune function contributes to the pathogenesis of obesity. This review attempts to briefly comment on the various plausible explanations that have been proposed for the phenomenon: (1) the obesity-associated increase in the production of leptin (pro-inflammatory) and the reduction in adiponectin (anti-inflammatory) seem to affect the activation of immune cells; (2) NEFA can induce inflammation through various mechanisms (such as modulation of adipokine production or activation of Toll-like receptors); (3) nutrient excess and adipocyte expansion trigger endoplasmic reticulum stress; and (4) hypoxia occurring in hypertrophied adipose tissue stimulates the expression of inflammatory genes and activates immune cells. Interestingly, data suggest a greater impact of visceral adipose tissue and central obesity, rather than total body fat, on the inflammatory process. In summary, there is a positive feedback loop between local inflammation in adipose tissue and altered immune response in obesity, both contributing to the development of related metabolic complications. Source

Alvarez M.D.,Institute of Food Science | Canet W.,Institute of Food Science
Journal of Texture Studies

Viscoelastic properties of four vegetable-based infant purees were evaluated in temperature range of 5-80C. Samples behaved like weak gels, with the exception of rice and chicken puree at 35, 50 and 65C, which behaved like a macromolecular solution. At 5-65C, storage modulus (G′) and storage loss (G″) could be well described by a power function of the frequency (R2>0.92), and the dependency of their parameters with temperature was modeled by Arrhenius's model and quadratic functions. Approach named "weak gel model" was also applied to the baby foods, and both G′ and G″ values decreased with an increase in temperature between 5 and 50C. Master curves were obtained applying time-temperature superposition principle, and horizontal shift factor was sensitive to choice of viscoelastic property being selected for shifting procedure. At 5-50C, infant purees behaved like thermoreologically complex materials. Rheological measurements were well supported by particle size distributions. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

Olmedilla-Alonso B.,Institute of Food Science | Jimenez-Colmenero F.,Institute of Food Science | Sanchez-Muniz F.J.,Complutense University of Madrid
Meat Science

This review deals with the two major aspects to be considered in the context of meat-based functional foods and human health. One involves the different strategies used to improve (increase or reduce) the presence of bioactive (healthy and unhealthy) compounds in meat and meat products in order to develop potential meat-based functional foods; these strategies are basically concerned with animal production practices, meat processing and storage, distribution and consumption conditions. Since the link between the consumption of those foods and their potentially beneficial effects (improving health and/or reducing the risk of several chronic diseases) needs to be demonstrated scientifically, the second aspect considered is related to intervention studies to examine the functional capacity of meat-based potentially functional foods in humans, discussing how the functionality of a food can be assessed in terms of its effects on health in relation to both target body functions and risk factors. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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