Institute of Food Science

Rome, Italy

Institute of Food Science

Rome, Italy
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Navarro M.,Institute of Food Science | Morales F.J.,Institute of Food Science
Food Chemistry | Year: 2017

The antiglycative activity of hydroxytyrosol (HT) and olive leaf extract (OLE) was investigated in wheat-flour biscuits. Quercetin (QE) and gallic acid (GA) were used as reference of antiglycative activity of phenolic compounds. HT, OLE, QE and GA were added in the range of 0.25–0.75% (w/w). Samples were compared against a control recipe baked at 180 °C/20 min. HT biscuit was able to inhibit efficiently the formation of hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and 3-deoxyglucosone (3-DG), as well as reduced the formation of overall free fluorescent AGEs and pentosidine. The inhibition of the 3-DG and HMF formation was directly and significantly correlated under controlled baking conditions. However, samples formulated with OLE exerted similar antiglycative capacity against pentosidine and Nε-carboxyethyl-lysine, although the amount of HT in the biscuit was 100-fold lower than the biscuit formulated with HT. Methylglyoxal, 3-DG, and glyoxal were the predominant 1,2-dicarbonyl compounds after baking but only 3-DG was significantly reduced by HT. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd


Granado-Serrano A.B.,Institute of Food Science | Martin M.A.,Institute of Food Science | Bravo L.,Institute of Food Science | Goya L.,Institute of Food Science | Ramos S.,Institute of Food Science
Chemico-Biological Interactions | Year: 2012

Dietary flavonoid quercetin has been suggested as a cancer chemopreventive agent, but the mechanisms of action remain unclear. This study investigated the influence of quercetin on p38-MAPK and the potential regulation of the nuclear transcription factor erythroid-2p45-related factor (Nrf2) and the cellular antioxidant/detoxifying defense system related to glutathione (GSH) by p38 in HepG2 cells. Incubation of HepG2 cells with quercetin at a range of concentrations (5-50 μM) for 4 or 18 h induced a differential effect on the modulation of p38 and Nrf2 in HepG2 cells, 50 μM quercetin showed the highest activation of p38 at 4h of treatment and values of p38 similar to those of control cells after 18 h of incubation, together with the inhibition of Nrf2 at both incubation times. Quercetin (50 μM) induced a time-dependent activation of p38, which was in concert with a transient stimulation of Nrf2 to provoke its inhibition afterward. Quercetin also increased GSH content, mRNA levels of glutamylcysteine-synthetase (GCS) and expression and/or activity of glutathione-peroxidase, glutathione-reductase and GCS after 4 h of incubation, and glutathione-S-transferase after 18 h of exposure. Further studies with the p38 specific inhibitor SB203580 showed that the p38 blockage restored the inhibited Nrf2 transcription factor and the enzymatic expression and activity of antioxidant/detoxificant enzymes after 4 h exposure. In conclusion, p38-MAPK is involved in the mechanisms of the cell response to quercetin through the modulation of Nrf2 and glutathione-related enzymes in HepG2 cells. © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.


Olmedilla-Alonso B.,Institute of Food Science | Jimenez-Colmenero F.,Institute of Food Science | Sanchez-Muniz F.J.,Complutense University of Madrid
Meat Science | Year: 2013

This review deals with the two major aspects to be considered in the context of meat-based functional foods and human health. One involves the different strategies used to improve (increase or reduce) the presence of bioactive (healthy and unhealthy) compounds in meat and meat products in order to develop potential meat-based functional foods; these strategies are basically concerned with animal production practices, meat processing and storage, distribution and consumption conditions. Since the link between the consumption of those foods and their potentially beneficial effects (improving health and/or reducing the risk of several chronic diseases) needs to be demonstrated scientifically, the second aspect considered is related to intervention studies to examine the functional capacity of meat-based potentially functional foods in humans, discussing how the functionality of a food can be assessed in terms of its effects on health in relation to both target body functions and risk factors. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


News Article | February 16, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

Obesity, or a high fat diet, can lead to changes in the immune system similar to those observed with aging. That's what research published this week in Experimental Physiology suggests. The research was carried out by scientists at Liverpool John Moores University in the United Kingdom and the Institute of Food Science, Technology and Nutrition of the Spanish National Research Council (ICTAN-CSIC), the University Complutense of Madrid and the Research Institute of the Hospital 12 de Octubre, in Spain. These findings are useful as they help scientists understand the impact of obesity on our body's ability to fight infection. They also found that it was possible to reverse some of these effects by supplementing the diet with unsaturated fatty acids found in vegetable oils, such as olive or fish oils. Obesity affects one in four adults in the UK and can lead to a number of serious and potentially life-threatening conditions, such as type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, some types of cancer, and stroke1. The researchers fed mice a high-fat diet, causing them to become obese. Signs of oxidative stress and certain properties of immune cells indicated aging of the immune system. These obese mice were then split into groups and received food supplemented either with 2-hydroxyoleic acid or omega-3 fatty acids for eight weeks. 'This is the first study, at least to our knowledge, to suggest the efficacy of 2-hydroxyoleic acid for reversing obesity-associated immune alterations and improving oxidative stress.' 2. Full paper title: Oxidative stress and immunosenescence in spleen of obese mice can be reversed by 2-hydroxyoleic acid DOI: 10.1113/EP086157 Link to paper http://onlinelibrary. (link will only work after the embargo date. Before then please email the press office for a copy of the paper) 3. Experimental Physiology publishes translation and integration of research, specifically manuscripts that deal with both physiological and pathophysiological questions that investigate gene/protein function using molecular, cellular and whole animal approaches. http://ep. 4. The Physiological Society brings together over 3,500 scientists from over 60 countries. The Society promotes physiology with the public and parliament alike. It supports physiologists by organising world-class conferences and offering grants for research and also publishes the latest developments in the field in its three leading scientific journals, The Journal of Physiology, Experimental Physiology and Physiological Reports. http://www. 5. Limitations: The study needs to be reproduced in humans to confirm the results


Perez-Jimenez J.,Institute of Food Science | Diaz-Rubio M.E.,Institute of Food Science | Saura-Calixto F.,Institute of Food Science
Nutrition Research Reviews | Year: 2013

Current research on dietary antioxidants misses the so-called non-extractable polyphenols (NEPP), which are not significantly released from the food matrix either by mastication, acid pH in the stomach or action of digestive enzymes, reaching the colon nearly intact. NEPP, not detected by the usual analytical procedures, are made up of macromolecules and single phenolic compounds associated with macromolecules. Therefore, NEPP are not included in food and dietary intake data nor in bioavailability, intervention or observational studies. The present paper aims to provide an overview of dietary NEPP - nature, occurrence in diet, metabolic fate and possible health effects. NEPP are a relevant fraction of dietary polyphenols exerting their main biological action in the colon, where they are extensively fermented by the action of microbiota, giving place to absorbable metabolites. NEPP exhibit different potential health-related properties, in particular in relation to gastrointestinal health, such as increases in antioxidant and antiproliferative capacities, reduction of intestinal tumorigenesis and modification of gene expression, as observed in different animal models. Further research into NEPP may provide a better understanding of the health effects of dietary antioxidants. © The Authors 2013.


Alvarez M.D.,Institute of Food Science | Canet W.,Institute of Food Science
Journal of Texture Studies | Year: 2013

Viscoelastic properties of four vegetable-based infant purees were evaluated in temperature range of 5-80C. Samples behaved like weak gels, with the exception of rice and chicken puree at 35, 50 and 65C, which behaved like a macromolecular solution. At 5-65C, storage modulus (G′) and storage loss (G″) could be well described by a power function of the frequency (R2>0.92), and the dependency of their parameters with temperature was modeled by Arrhenius's model and quadratic functions. Approach named "weak gel model" was also applied to the baby foods, and both G′ and G″ values decreased with an increase in temperature between 5 and 50C. Master curves were obtained applying time-temperature superposition principle, and horizontal shift factor was sensitive to choice of viscoelastic property being selected for shifting procedure. At 5-50C, infant purees behaved like thermoreologically complex materials. Rheological measurements were well supported by particle size distributions. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


De Heredia F.P.,Institute of Food Science | Gomez-Martinez S.,Institute of Food Science | Marcos A.,Institute of Food Science
Proceedings of the Nutrition Society | Year: 2012

Obesity shares with most chronic diseases the presence of an inflammatory component, which accounts for the development of metabolic disease and other associated health alterations. This inflammatory state is reflected in increased circulating levels of pro-inflammatory proteins, and it occurs not only in adults but also in adolescents and children. The chronic inflammatory response has its origin in the links existing between the adipose tissue and the immune system. Obesity, like other states of malnutrition, is known to impair the immune function, altering leucocyte counts as well as cell-mediated immune responses. In addition, evidence has arisen that an altered immune function contributes to the pathogenesis of obesity. This review attempts to briefly comment on the various plausible explanations that have been proposed for the phenomenon: (1) the obesity-associated increase in the production of leptin (pro-inflammatory) and the reduction in adiponectin (anti-inflammatory) seem to affect the activation of immune cells; (2) NEFA can induce inflammation through various mechanisms (such as modulation of adipokine production or activation of Toll-like receptors); (3) nutrient excess and adipocyte expansion trigger endoplasmic reticulum stress; and (4) hypoxia occurring in hypertrophied adipose tissue stimulates the expression of inflammatory genes and activates immune cells. Interestingly, data suggest a greater impact of visceral adipose tissue and central obesity, rather than total body fat, on the inflammatory process. In summary, there is a positive feedback loop between local inflammation in adipose tissue and altered immune response in obesity, both contributing to the development of related metabolic complications. © 2012 The Authors.


Saura-Calixto F.,Institute of Food Science
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2012

Most research studies in the field of dietary polyphenols or phenolic compounds use a chemical approach focusing exclusively on polyphenols extracted from plant foods with organic solvents. However, an appreciable part of polyphenols are not extracted with organic solvents and thus are ignored in biological, nutritional, and epidemiological studies. Recent studies have shown that these nonextractable polyphenols (NEPP) are a major part of total dietary polyphenols and that they exhibit a significant biological activity. A physiological approach is proposed on the basis that the bioavailability and health-related properties of polyphenols depend on their solubility in intestinal fluids, which is different from their solubility in organic solvents. This paper tries to clarify the concept of NEPP, distinguishing between chemical and physiological approaches and pointing out the main qualitative and quantitative differences between them. It is stressed that the literature and databases refer to only extractable polyphenols. Greater attention to NEPP may fill the current gap in the field of dietary polyphenols. © 2012 American Chemical Society.


de Heredia F.P.,Institute of Food Science
The Proceedings of the Nutrition Society | Year: 2012

Obesity shares with most chronic diseases the presence of an inflammatory component, which accounts for the development of metabolic disease and other associated health alterations. This inflammatory state is reflected in increased circulating levels of pro-inflammatory proteins, and it occurs not only in adults but also in adolescents and children. The chronic inflammatory response has its origin in the links existing between the adipose tissue and the immune system. Obesity, like other states of malnutrition, is known to impair the immune function, altering leucocyte counts as well as cell-mediated immune responses. In addition, evidence has arisen that an altered immune function contributes to the pathogenesis of obesity. This review attempts to briefly comment on the various plausible explanations that have been proposed for the phenomenon: (1) the obesity-associated increase in the production of leptin (pro-inflammatory) and the reduction in adiponectin (anti-inflammatory) seem to affect the activation of immune cells; (2) NEFA can induce inflammation through various mechanisms (such as modulation of adipokine production or activation of Toll-like receptors); (3) nutrient excess and adipocyte expansion trigger endoplasmic reticulum stress; and (4) hypoxia occurring in hypertrophied adipose tissue stimulates the expression of inflammatory genes and activates immune cells. Interestingly, data suggest a greater impact of visceral adipose tissue and central obesity, rather than total body fat, on the inflammatory process. In summary, there is a positive feedback loop between local inflammation in adipose tissue and altered immune response in obesity, both contributing to the development of related metabolic complications.


De Pascual-Teresa S.,Institute of Food Science
Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics | Year: 2014

Anthocyanins are the main group of natural hydrosoluble pigments in plants. They introduce colouring to foods, with colours ranging from blue to red and orange. Nowadays, their importance for the Food and Pharmaceutical industries is mainly based in the existing scientific work evidencing their beneficial effects on the prevention of cardiovascular diseases and neurological conditions. Different mechanisms have been shown to be involved in those effects. The most consistent ones are related to their antihypertensive and endothelium protective activities, antiatherogenic activity and their interaction with the estrogenic receptor. In some of the existing work, studies on structure-activity relationship have been done, showing that modifications on the structure of anthocyanins, besides having an effect on their colours, have a clear incidence on their interaction with different steps in the principal pathways related to these diseases. Therefore, different colours might show different molecular mechanisms. However, in a normal diet most of these compounds are present simultaneously and, thus; they can act by different mechanisms but can rise to a common final action. Design of new food product or food supplements should take these potential synergies into consideration. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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