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Agency: GTR | Branch: BBSRC | Program: | Phase: Intramural | Award Amount: 104.92K | Year: 2015

The substantial economic and health impact of pathogens of the genus Salmonella is the result of their entry into and survival within the food chain, and their ability to cause disease. Salmonella are a diverse group of pathogens in which some variants are more likely to be associated with disease in humans than others. One of the factors governing this is the adaptation to host species that are important sources of food. Recently an epidemic spanning three years was associated with S. Typhimurium (STM) DT8 that was specifically associated with duck eggs. Recent research from my lab revealed that DT8 is part of a cluster of genotypes adapted to circulation in populations of poultry, ducks and geese. But what are the genomic or transcriptomic features specific to these clusters that result in their association with the avian host and transmission through the food chain? Polymorphisms associated with essential genes, or altered transcriptional response of essential genes, that are specific to strains belonging to genotypic clusters associated with altered risk to food safety are candidate molecular markers of risk to food safety. The overall aim of this project is to determine the essential genes and transcriptional response of STM DT8 compared with non-DT8 variants. The central hypothesis is that a distinct transcriptional response and sets of genes are associated with S. Typhimurium DT8 in environments encountered in the host and during transmission. The significance of the project is that it will inform strategies to intervene in transmission of food borne pathogens through the food chain and identify pathogens in their zoonotic reservoirs.

Agency: GTR | Branch: BBSRC | Program: | Phase: Research Grant | Award Amount: 113.56K | Year: 2015

Palm Paper Ltd. recycles 400K tonnes of waste newsprint annually. This creates 140,000 tonnes paper crumble (PC) waste which costs £4m to dispose of by landspreading. PC comprises approximately 15-20% cellulose and 70% paper filler (calcium carbonate) with a little latex. The aim of this research is to evaluate the feasibility of innovatively digesting the cellulose to liberate glucose and to then refine the large carbonate fraction for re-incorporation into the newspaper production process. This will avoid disposal and reduce the import of new paper filler. The research will also assess the feasibility of converting the liberated glucose to chemicals and fuel ethanol by fermentation with specialist yeasts identified from the UK National Collection of Yeast Cultures at Norwich. The study will build on preliminary research carried out at the Biorefinery Centre, IFR, Norwich, in conjunction with industrial research expertise of Palm Paper, Lenzing, plc and Vireol plc. Additional sources of cellulose waste (e.g. waste paper, cellulose fibres) will be incorporated into the study to improve economies of scale as required. In this way, the project will serve to address three IB challenges: production of commodity, platform and intermediate chemicals and materials; production of liquid and gaseous biofuels and novel or improved upstream or downstream processes to reduce costs and improve efficiency.

Agency: GTR | Branch: BBSRC | Program: | Phase: Intramural | Award Amount: 178.79K | Year: 2015

Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) is a NAD+ histone III deacetylase that links the energy status of the cell with the regulation of metabolism, cell protection, inflammation and other vital processes that preserve whole-body homeostasis. SIRT1 mediates a healthy aging and protects the liver against dietary-induced metabolic disease, whereas we recently described the pro-tumorigenic characteristic of this deacetylase in the liver. Our most recent findings showing the detrimental implication of SIRT1 in (murine and human) cholestatic disease support the complexity of SIRT1 signaling and highlight the importance of defining specificity of SIRT1 function in different cellular contexts. Importantly, increasing evidences point to the relevance of the communication between the liver and the gut in preserving liver homeostasis and how disturbances in gut function may influence the progression of chronic liver diseases such as metabolic syndrome and cholestasis. Taking all these together, our research aims to understand the role of SIRT1 in regulating the liver-gut interaction to preserve life-long health and how SIRT1 may influence the progression of chronic liver disease. To understand the implication of SIRT1 in these processes will allow us to propose new therapeutic strategies based on the modulation of this deacetylase to preserve health. Our multidisciplinary work involves the use of diverse techniques including molecular biology, immunology and high throughput technologies (transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics) for the in depth analysis of samples obtained from in vitro, in vivo (from transgenic animals conventionally raised or in germ-free conditions) and ultimately in human specimens. We anticipate that our results will enable us to develop interventional opportunities aiming to maintain and/or restore gut and liver homeostasis and to preserve a life-long health.

Agency: GTR | Branch: BBSRC | Program: | Phase: Research Grant | Award Amount: 30.61K | Year: 2015

Abstracts are not currently available in GtR for all funded research. This is normally because the abstract was not required at the time of proposal submission, but may be because it included sensitive information such as personal details.

Institute Of Food Research | Date: 2013-11-07

The present invention relates to a method of producing one or more sugar for bio-alcohol production, comprising the step of degrading bioorganic matter comprising lignocellulose, to generate one or more sugar from the lignocellulose and a degraded bioorganic residue; characterised in that the method further comprises the step of forming a plant growth medium from the degraded bioorganic residue. The invention further relates to plant growth media obtained by the method of the present invention.

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