Vandevijvere S.,Scientific Institute of Public Health |
Amsalkhir S.,Free University of Colombia |
Van Oyen H.,Scientific Institute of Public Health |
Ines E.,Institute of Food Nutrition and Health |
Moreno-Reyes R.,Free University of Colombia
Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics | Year: 2013
Iron-deficiency anemia is associated with adverse neonatal health outcomes. Iron status and its determinants were assessed in a representative sample of Belgian pregnant women. Blood samples were collected and a questionnaire was completed face-to-face. Hemoglobin (Hb) and mean cell volume were measured using a Beckman Coulter Hematology Analyzer and serum ferritin (SF) and transferrin receptor (sTfr) concentrations by immunoassay. In total, 55 obstetric clinics and 1,311 pregnant women were included. Approximately 40% of third-trimester and 6% of first-trimester women had SF levels less than 15 μg/L. Approximately 21% of third-trimester and 4% of first-trimester women had anemia (Hb <110 g/L). Of the third-trimester women, 23% were iron-deficient nonanemic (SF <15 μg/L and Hb 110 g/L), 16% had iron-deficiency anemia (SF <15 μg/L and Hb <110 g/L), and approximately 7% had tissue iron deficiency (sTfr >8.5 mg/L). The median body iron stores were 8.1 mg/kg among first-trimester women, but only 3.6 mg/kg among third-trimester women. SF levels were significantly positively associated with age and education level, and were higher among nulliparous women and lower among North-African women. sTfr concentrations were significantly negatively associated with age and were lower among smokers, nulliparous women, and women who planned their pregnancy. Despite the fact that two thirds of Belgian pregnant women took iron-containing supplements, iron deficiency and iron-deficiency anemia were frequent in third-trimester women. The World Health Organization regards this as a moderate public health problem. National iron supplementation guidelines are needed in Belgium to optimize iron status during pregnancy. © 2013 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics.
Schober G.,Institute of Food Nutrition and Health |
Arnold M.,Institute of Food Nutrition and Health |
Birtles S.,Astrazeneca |
Buckett L.K.,Astrazeneca |
And 4 more authors.
Journal of Lipid Research | Year: 2013
AcylCoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase-1 (DGAT-1) catalyzes the final step in triacylglycerol (TAG) synthesis and is highly expressed in the small intestine. Because DGAT-1 knockout mice are resistant to diet-induced obesity, we investigated the acute effects of intragastric (IG) infusion of a small molecule diacylglycerol acyltransferase-1 inhibitor (DGAT-1i) on eating, circulating fat metabolites, indirect calorimetry, and hepatic and intestinal expression of key fat catabolism enzymes in male rats adapted to an 8 h feeding- 16 h deprivation schedule. Also, the DGAT-1i effect on fatty acid oxidation (FAO) was investigated in enterocyte cell culture models. IG DGAT-1i infusions reduced energy intake compared with vehicle in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed rats, but scarcely in chow-fed rats. IG DGAT-1i also blunted the postprandial increase in serum TAG and increased β-hydroxybutyrate levels only in HFD-fed rats, in which it lowered the respiratory quotient and increased intestinal, but not hepatic, protein levels of Complex III of the mitochondrial respiratory chain and of mitochondrial hydroxymethylglutaryl- CoA synthase. Finally, the DGAT-1i enhanced FAO in CaCo2 (EC 50 = 0.3494) and HuTu80 (EC 50 = 0.00762) cells. Thus, pharmacological DGAT-1 inhibition leads to an increase in intestinal FAO and ketogenesis when dietary fat is available. This may contribute to the observed eatinginhibitory effect. Copyright © 2013 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.
PubMed | Institute of Food Nutrition and Health
Type: Journal Article | Journal: American journal of physiology. Regulatory, integrative and comparative physiology | Year: 2011
Various mechanisms detect the presence of dietary triacylglycerols (TAG) in the digestive tract and link TAG ingestion to the regulation of energy homeostasis. We here propose a novel sensing mechanism with the potential to encode dietary TAG-derived energy by translating enterocyte fatty acid oxidation (FAO) into vagal afferent signals controlling eating. Peripheral FAO has long been implicated in the control of eating (141). The prevailing view was that mercaptoacetate (MA) and other FAO inhibitors stimulate eating by modulating vagal afferent signaling from the liver. This concept has been challenged because hepatic parenchymal vagal afferent innervation is scarce and because experimentally induced changes in hepatic FAO often fail to affect eating. Nevertheless, intraperitoneally administered MA acts in the abdomen to stimulate eating because this effect was blocked by subdiaphragmatic vagal deafferentation (21), a surgical technique that eliminates all vagal afferents from the upper gut. These and other data support a role of the small intestine rather than the liver as a FAO sensor that can influence eating. After intrajejunal infusions, MA also stimulated eating in rats through vagal afferent signaling, and after infusion into the superior mesenteric artery, MA increased the activity of celiac vagal afferent fibers originating in the proximal small intestine. Also, pharmacological interference with TAG synthesis targeting the small intestine induced a metabolic profile indicative of increased FAO and inhibited eating in rats on a high-fat diet but not on chow. Finally, cell culture studies indicate that enterocytes oxidize fatty acids, which can be modified pharmacologically. Thus enterocytes may sense dietary TAG-derived fatty acids via FAO and influence eating through changes in intestinal vagal afferent activity. Further studies are necessary to identify the link between enterocyte FAO and vagal afferents and to examine the specificity and potential physiological relevance of such a mechanism.