Institute of Food and Radiation Biology

Savar, Bangladesh

Institute of Food and Radiation Biology

Savar, Bangladesh
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Taylor P.W.,Macquarie University | Khan M.,Macquarie University | Khan M.,Institute of Food and Radiation Biology | Collins S.R.,Macquarie University | Reynolds O.L.,Charles Sturt University
Physiological Entomology | Year: 2013

Post-teneral diets containing yeast hydrolysate are reported to increase longevity, reproductive development and sexual performance of Queensland fruit fly ('Q-fly') Bactrocera tryoni Froggatt (Diptera: Tephritidae) Consequently, diets including yeast hydrolysate are recommended for sterile Q-flies before release in sterile insect technique (SIT) programmes However, in some tephritids, diets including yeast hydrolysate are associated with an increased vulnerability to starvation In the present study, the effects of yeast hydrolysate supplementation before release are considered with respect to the longevity of released Q-fly when food becomes scarce. Experiments are carried out in three settings of varying resemblance to field conditions: 5-L laboratory cages, 107-L outdoor cages and 14140-L field cages containing potted citrus trees. In all experimental settings, compared with flies that received only sucrose, male and female Q-flies that are provided with yeast hydrolysate during the first 2days of adult life have a significantly shorter survival when subsequently deprived of food. Yeast supplementation appears to commit Q-flies to a developmental trajectory that renders them more vulnerable to starvation. The practical significance of these findings for SIT depends on how often the releases are carried out under conditions in which Q-flies experience extreme food shortages in the field. © 2013 The Royal Entomological Society.

Khan M.,Macquarie University | Khan M.,Institute of Food and Radiation Biology
Australian Journal of Entomology | Year: 2013

Diets for the mass rearing of tephritid fruit flies have traditionally been based on bulking agents, such as lucerne, bran or carrot, which make up the majority of the larval medium. To overcome storage, handling and waste challenges of such 'solid' diets, liquid diets have been developed for some species. In liquid diets, reusable inert substrates, such as synthetic sponge, replace bulking agents to support the developing larvae. As a step towards increased production efficiency and quality, this study investigated the efficacy of three liquid diets and four solid diets for mass rearing of Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) ('Q-fly'). Under similar egg/diet density, diets were assessed in terms of pupal yield, larval duration, pupal weight, sex ratio, % adult emergence, % fliers, rate of fliers, egg/female/day, egging latency, and % egg hatch in both parental and F1 generation. The best liquid diet showed some promise as an alternative to conventional solid diets. Comparing Q-fly reared on the best liquid diet with those reared on lucerne diet revealed mean pupal yield of 1636±106.9 vs. 658±16.2, pupal recovery of 21±0.0% vs. 10±0.0%, egg/female/day of 53±3.8 vs. 30±2.4, parental egg hatch of 85±0.9% vs. 70±1.6% and F1 egg hatch of 87±0.9% vs. 74±1.4%. Liquid diets and their associated rearing systems show potential as efficient, reliable and economical replacements for the current solid diets. © 2013 The Author © 2013 Australian Entomological Society.

Khan M.,Macquarie University | Khan M.,Institute of Food and Radiation Biology
Journal of Applied Entomology | Year: 2015

Liquid larval diets have been developed for several tephritid fruit flies including Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Frogatt) (Q-fly). In liquid diets, wheat germ oil (WGO) is usually added to improve performance in some quality parameters of reared flies, especially flight ability. However, for some flies, other plant oils may be more readily available, cheaper or produce flies of superior performance. In the present study, four alternative types of plant oils - rice bran, canola, vegetable, and sesame - were incorporated into a fruit fly liquid larval diet to replace the currently used wheat germ oil and their efficacy on the quality parameters of reared Q-fly was compared to diets containing wheat germ oil or no oil. The quality parameters included: total pupal yield (N), pupal recovery (%), larval duration (days), pupal weight (mg), adult emergence (%), adult fliers (%), rate of fliers (%), sex ratio (%), F1 egg/female/day and egg hatching (%). There were significant differences among treatments in performance of Q-fly. Vegetable oil appeared better in terms of total pupal yield, percentage of pupal recovery, percentage of adult emergence, percentage of fliers, mean egg/female/day and % F1 egg hatch compared with other oil treatments, especially from that of WGO treated diet. The result suggests that WGO can be substituted with rice bran and vegetable oil to improve the liquid larval diet for rearing of B. tryoni, with vegetable oil being the best replacement. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

Masud Rana A.Y.K.M.,Yamaguchi University | Masud Rana A.Y.K.M.,Institute of Food and Radiation Biology | Tsujioka M.,Osaka University | Miyagishima S.,National Institute of Genetics | And 2 more authors.
Genes to Cells | Year: 2013

Dynamin has been proposed to play an important role in cytokinesis, although the nature of its contribution has remained unclear. Dictyostelium discoideum has five dynamin-like proteins: DymA, DymB, DlpA, DlpB and DlpC. Cells mutant for dymA, dlpA or dlpB presented defects in cytokinesis that resulted in multinucleation when the cells were cultured in suspension. However, the cells could divide normally when attached to the substratum; this latter process depends on traction-mediated cytokinesis B. A dynamin GTPase inhibitor also blocked cytokinesis in suspension, suggesting an important role for dynamin in cytokinesis A, which requires a contractile ring powered by myosin II. Myosin II did not properly localize to the cleavage furrow in dynamin mutant cells, and the furrow shape was distorted. DymA and DlpA were associated with actin filaments at the furrow. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching and a DNase I binding assay showed that actin filaments in the contractile ring were significantly fragmented in mutant cells. Dynamin is therefore involved in the stabilization of actin filaments in the furrow, which, in turn, maintain proper myosin II organization. We conclude that the lack of these dynamins disrupts proper actomyosin organization and thereby disables cytokinesis A. © 2013 by the Molecular Biology Society of Japan and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

PubMed | Institute of Food and Radiation Biology, University of Dhaka and Universiti Sains Malaysia
Type: | Journal: Chemistry Central journal | Year: 2016

The aim of this study was to determine the levels of cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), lead (Pb), arsenic (As) and selenium (Se) in (1) fresh tea leaves, (2) processed (black) tea leaves and (3) soils from tea plantations originating from Bangladesh.Graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF-AAS) was used to evaluate six digestion methods, (1) nitric acid, (2) nitric acid overnight, (3) nitric acid-hydrogen peroxide, (4) nitric-perchloric acid, (5) sulfuric acid, and (6) dry ashing, to determine the most suitable digestion method for the determination of heavy metals in the samples.The concentration ranges of Cd, Pb, As and Se in fresh tea leaves were from 0.03-0.13, 0.19-2.06 and 0.47-1.31g/g, respectively while processed tea contained heavy metals at different concentrations: Cd (0.04-0.16g/g), Cr (0.45-10.73g/g), Pb (0.07-1.03g/g), As (0.89-1.90g/g) and Se (0.21-10.79g/g). Moreover, the soil samples of tea plantations also showed a wide range of concentrations: Cd (0.11-0.45g/g), Pb (2.80-66.54g/g), As (0.78-4.49g/g), and Se content (0.03-0.99g/g). Method no. 2 provided sufficient time to digest the tea matrix and was the most efficient method for recovering Cd, Cr, Pb, As and Se. Methods 1 and 3 were also acceptable and can be relatively inexpensive, easy and fast. The heavy metal transfer factors in the investigated soil/tea samples decreased as follows: Cd>As>Se>Pb.Overall, the present study gives current insights into the heavy metal levels both in soils and teas commonly consumed in Bangladesh.

Bhattacharjee S.,Jahangirnagar University | Fakhruddin A.N.M.,Jahangirnagar University | Chowdhury M.A.Z.,Institute of Food and Radiation Biology | Rahman M.A.,Institute of Food and Radiation Biology | Alam M.K.,Institute of Food and Radiation Biology
Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology | Year: 2012

Consumption of pesticides associated foods increased in recent decades in Bangladesh. Most of the pesticides come from paddy, as rice is the main food items here and about 70 % pesticides are used only on paddy fields. Water samples of paddy fields and Kaliganga River of Manikganj district were analyzed to provide base line data on cypermethrin, chlorpyrifos and diazinon residue by using high performance liquid chromatography. Levels of Cypermethrin, chlorpyrifos and diazinon detected in the paddy field water samples were (0.605 ± 0.011 μg/L), (0.06 ± 0.001 μg/L) and (0.039 ± 0.002 μg/L), respectively. 0.11 ± 0.003 μg/L of cypermethrin and 0.012 ± 0.0006 μg/L of chlorpyrifos were also identified in the water samples of Kaligonga River. Diazinon residue was not detected in the river water samples. The detected concentrations of pesticide residues in the river water were below the accepted maximum residue limit (MRL) value of drinking water (0.1 μg/l) adopted by the FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius Commission. Cypermethrin and chlorpyrifos were chosen for decontamination through rice bran, as it was found in river water. Two gm rice bran could easily decontaminated 95.6 % and 96.4 % of cypermethrin and chlorpyrifos. The result of this study showed that pesticide residue was detected in water samples were below the MRLs value, which can easily be decontaminated through absorption of rice bran. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012.

Arzina H.,Stamford University Bangladesh | Zahid Hasan M.,Stamford University Bangladesh | Abdullah-AI-Mahin,Institute of Food and Radiation Biology | Harun-Or-Rashid,Institute of Food and Radiation Biology
American Journal of Food Technology | Year: 2012

Staphylococcus aureus, a common human pathogen, produces enterotoxin and causes intoxication when ingested through contaminated food. The aim of the present study was to investigate microbiological quality of pizza and to detect the presence of the pathogenic S. aureus in this food. Moreover, effects of gamma radiation and low temperature on inoculated pathogenic S. aureus in pizza were examined. For this purpose, 20 pizza samples were collected from 5 different shops to check the microbiological quality and the presence of S. auresu. Isolated S. aureus were then checked for toxin production by mice assay. Pre-sterilized pizza samples inoculated with toxin producing isolate were then subjected to different gamma radiation doses and kept at refrigerator followed by detecting the presence of viable S. aureus. Among the collected pizza samples, 18 samples showed the presence of high number of total bacterial count, coliform count and staphylococcal count. Microwave heating could completely eliminate the viable counts only after 2 min. Among the isolated Staphylococcus spp., 13 isolates were identified as pathogenic S. aureus and one isolate produced deadly toxin. Radiation dose of 8 kGy resulted in the total elimination of S. aureus inoculated in pizza samples. However, low temperature (4°C) storage after gamma radiation showed a drastic change on the growth of the organism. The shelf life of these pizza samples was also extended up to 14 days. Thus, irradiation at 8 kGy with combination of storage at 4°C could be the suggested treatment for the storage of such ready-to-eat food without presence of pathogenic S. aureus.

PubMed | Institute of Food and Radiation Biology, Jahangirnagar University and Universiti Sains Malaysia
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Human & experimental toxicology | Year: 2016

This study investigated the main target sites of chlorpyrifos (CPF), its effect on biochemical indices, and the pathological changes observed in rat liver and kidney function using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Adult female Wistar rats (n = 12) were randomly assigned into two groups (one control and one test group; n = 6 each). The test group received CPF via oral gavage for 21 days at 5 mg/kg daily. The distribution of CPF was determined in various organs (liver, brain, heart, lung, kidney, ovary, adipose tissue, and skeletal muscle), urine and stool samples using GCMS. Approximately 6.18% of CPF was distributed in the body tissues, and the highest CPF concentration (3.80%) was found in adipose tissue. CPF also accumulated in the liver (0.29%), brain (0.22%), kidney (0.10%), and ovary (0.03%). Approximately 83.60% of CPF was detected in the urine. CPF exposure resulted in a significant increase in plasma transaminases, alkaline phosphatase, and total bilirubin levels, a significant reduction in total protein levels and an altered lipid profile. Oxidative stress due to CPF administration was also evidenced by a significant increase in liver malondialdehyde levels. The detrimental effects of CPF on kidney function consisted of a significant increase in plasma urea and creatinine levels. Liver and kidney histology confirmed the observed biochemical changes. In conclusion, CPF bioaccumulates over time and exerts toxic effects on animals.

Moniruzzaman M.,Universiti Sains Malaysia | Chowdhury M.A.Z.,Institute of Food and Radiation Biology | Rahman M.A.,Institute of Food and Radiation Biology | Sulaiman S.A.,Universiti Sains Malaysia | Gan S.H.,Universiti Sains Malaysia
BioMed Research International | Year: 2014

The present study was undertaken to determine the content of six minerals, five trace elements, and ten pesticide residues in honeys originating from different regions of Malaysia. Calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), iron (Fe), and zinc (Zn) were analyzed by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS), while sodium (Na) and potassium (K) were analyzed by flame emission spectrometry (FAES). Trace elements such as arsenic (As), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), and cobalt (Co) were analyzed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) following the microwave digestion of honey. High mineral contents were observed in the investigated honeys with K, Na, Ca, and Fe being the most abundant elements (mean concentrations of 1349.34, 236.80, 183.67, and 162.31 mg/kg, resp.). The concentrations of the trace elements were within the recommended limits, indicating that the honeys were of good quality. Principal component analysis reveals good discrimination between the different honey samples. The pesticide analysis for the presence of organophosphorus and carbamates was performed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). No pesticide residues were detected in any of the investigated honey samples, indicating that the honeys were pure. Our study reveals that Malaysian honeys are rich sources of minerals with trace elements present within permissible limits and that they are free from pesticide contamination. © 2014 Mohammed Moniruzzaman et al.

Akter H.,Institute of Food and Radiation Biology | Khan S.A.,Institute of Food and Radiation Biology
Asian Journal of Agricultural Research | Year: 2012

A considerable amount of tomato is damaged after harvest every year (20-30% annually) which has impact on the total vegetable production in Bangladesh. Gamma irradiation doses of 250, 500 and 750 Gray (Gy) were analyzed compared to those of unirradiated ones on 1st, 8th and 13th day of irradiation stored at 4, 12 and 25°C to observe whether it could combat the loss. Radiation did not affect colour of tomato and it did not differ significantly with dose as well. However, storage time had effect on colour at 12 and 25°C at some aspect whereas no effect at 4°C in both irradiated and unirradiated tomatoes. Significant firmness was lost in irradiated tomatoes stored for 13 days at 4°C while no such significant differences in firmness was observed at 12 and 25°C. Immediate firmness loss was observed in irradiated tomatoes stored at 25°C and firmness decreased more in 500 and 750 Gy treated tomatoes than 250 Gy treated ones at 4 and 25°C whereas no such difference was observed between irradiation doses at 12°C. Radiation had no effect on percent sugar. Highest percentage of tomato loss was found at 25°C in both irradiated and unirradiated tomatoes but 750 Gy treated tomatoes showed promising result at all storage temperatures. Considering firmness loss,Total Soluble Solid (TSS) (%sugar) and damage during storage, a dose of 750 Gy and storage temperature 12°C stood out as ideal combination for BARI Hybrid-3 tomato in Bangladesh to combat annual post harvest loss. © 2012 Knowledgia Review, Malaysia.

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