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Taylor P.W.,Macquarie University | Khan M.,Macquarie University | Khan M.,Institute of Food and Radiation Biology | Collins S.R.,Macquarie University | Reynolds O.L.,Charles Sturt University
Physiological Entomology | Year: 2013

Post-teneral diets containing yeast hydrolysate are reported to increase longevity, reproductive development and sexual performance of Queensland fruit fly ('Q-fly') Bactrocera tryoni Froggatt (Diptera: Tephritidae) Consequently, diets including yeast hydrolysate are recommended for sterile Q-flies before release in sterile insect technique (SIT) programmes However, in some tephritids, diets including yeast hydrolysate are associated with an increased vulnerability to starvation In the present study, the effects of yeast hydrolysate supplementation before release are considered with respect to the longevity of released Q-fly when food becomes scarce. Experiments are carried out in three settings of varying resemblance to field conditions: 5-L laboratory cages, 107-L outdoor cages and 14140-L field cages containing potted citrus trees. In all experimental settings, compared with flies that received only sucrose, male and female Q-flies that are provided with yeast hydrolysate during the first 2days of adult life have a significantly shorter survival when subsequently deprived of food. Yeast supplementation appears to commit Q-flies to a developmental trajectory that renders them more vulnerable to starvation. The practical significance of these findings for SIT depends on how often the releases are carried out under conditions in which Q-flies experience extreme food shortages in the field. © 2013 The Royal Entomological Society. Source


Masud Rana A.Y.K.M.,Yamaguchi University | Masud Rana A.Y.K.M.,Institute of Food and Radiation Biology | Tsujioka M.,Osaka University | Miyagishima S.,National Institute of Genetics | And 2 more authors.
Genes to Cells | Year: 2013

Dynamin has been proposed to play an important role in cytokinesis, although the nature of its contribution has remained unclear. Dictyostelium discoideum has five dynamin-like proteins: DymA, DymB, DlpA, DlpB and DlpC. Cells mutant for dymA, dlpA or dlpB presented defects in cytokinesis that resulted in multinucleation when the cells were cultured in suspension. However, the cells could divide normally when attached to the substratum; this latter process depends on traction-mediated cytokinesis B. A dynamin GTPase inhibitor also blocked cytokinesis in suspension, suggesting an important role for dynamin in cytokinesis A, which requires a contractile ring powered by myosin II. Myosin II did not properly localize to the cleavage furrow in dynamin mutant cells, and the furrow shape was distorted. DymA and DlpA were associated with actin filaments at the furrow. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching and a DNase I binding assay showed that actin filaments in the contractile ring were significantly fragmented in mutant cells. Dynamin is therefore involved in the stabilization of actin filaments in the furrow, which, in turn, maintain proper myosin II organization. We conclude that the lack of these dynamins disrupts proper actomyosin organization and thereby disables cytokinesis A. © 2013 by the Molecular Biology Society of Japan and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd. Source


Khan M.,Macquarie University | Khan M.,Institute of Food and Radiation Biology
Australian Journal of Entomology | Year: 2013

Diets for the mass rearing of tephritid fruit flies have traditionally been based on bulking agents, such as lucerne, bran or carrot, which make up the majority of the larval medium. To overcome storage, handling and waste challenges of such 'solid' diets, liquid diets have been developed for some species. In liquid diets, reusable inert substrates, such as synthetic sponge, replace bulking agents to support the developing larvae. As a step towards increased production efficiency and quality, this study investigated the efficacy of three liquid diets and four solid diets for mass rearing of Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) ('Q-fly'). Under similar egg/diet density, diets were assessed in terms of pupal yield, larval duration, pupal weight, sex ratio, % adult emergence, % fliers, rate of fliers, egg/female/day, egging latency, and % egg hatch in both parental and F1 generation. The best liquid diet showed some promise as an alternative to conventional solid diets. Comparing Q-fly reared on the best liquid diet with those reared on lucerne diet revealed mean pupal yield of 1636±106.9 vs. 658±16.2, pupal recovery of 21±0.0% vs. 10±0.0%, egg/female/day of 53±3.8 vs. 30±2.4, parental egg hatch of 85±0.9% vs. 70±1.6% and F1 egg hatch of 87±0.9% vs. 74±1.4%. Liquid diets and their associated rearing systems show potential as efficient, reliable and economical replacements for the current solid diets. © 2013 The Author © 2013 Australian Entomological Society. Source


Khan M.,Macquarie University | Khan M.,Institute of Food and Radiation Biology
Journal of Applied Entomology | Year: 2015

Liquid larval diets have been developed for several tephritid fruit flies including Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Frogatt) (Q-fly). In liquid diets, wheat germ oil (WGO) is usually added to improve performance in some quality parameters of reared flies, especially flight ability. However, for some flies, other plant oils may be more readily available, cheaper or produce flies of superior performance. In the present study, four alternative types of plant oils - rice bran, canola, vegetable, and sesame - were incorporated into a fruit fly liquid larval diet to replace the currently used wheat germ oil and their efficacy on the quality parameters of reared Q-fly was compared to diets containing wheat germ oil or no oil. The quality parameters included: total pupal yield (N), pupal recovery (%), larval duration (days), pupal weight (mg), adult emergence (%), adult fliers (%), rate of fliers (%), sex ratio (%), F1 egg/female/day and egg hatching (%). There were significant differences among treatments in performance of Q-fly. Vegetable oil appeared better in terms of total pupal yield, percentage of pupal recovery, percentage of adult emergence, percentage of fliers, mean egg/female/day and % F1 egg hatch compared with other oil treatments, especially from that of WGO treated diet. The result suggests that WGO can be substituted with rice bran and vegetable oil to improve the liquid larval diet for rearing of B. tryoni, with vegetable oil being the best replacement. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH. Source


Moniruzzaman M.,Universiti Sains Malaysia | Chowdhury M.A.Z.,Institute of Food and Radiation Biology | Rahman M.A.,Institute of Food and Radiation Biology | Sulaiman S.A.,Universiti Sains Malaysia | Gan S.H.,Universiti Sains Malaysia
BioMed Research International | Year: 2014

The present study was undertaken to determine the content of six minerals, five trace elements, and ten pesticide residues in honeys originating from different regions of Malaysia. Calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), iron (Fe), and zinc (Zn) were analyzed by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS), while sodium (Na) and potassium (K) were analyzed by flame emission spectrometry (FAES). Trace elements such as arsenic (As), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), and cobalt (Co) were analyzed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) following the microwave digestion of honey. High mineral contents were observed in the investigated honeys with K, Na, Ca, and Fe being the most abundant elements (mean concentrations of 1349.34, 236.80, 183.67, and 162.31 mg/kg, resp.). The concentrations of the trace elements were within the recommended limits, indicating that the honeys were of good quality. Principal component analysis reveals good discrimination between the different honey samples. The pesticide analysis for the presence of organophosphorus and carbamates was performed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). No pesticide residues were detected in any of the investigated honey samples, indicating that the honeys were pure. Our study reveals that Malaysian honeys are rich sources of minerals with trace elements present within permissible limits and that they are free from pesticide contamination. © 2014 Mohammed Moniruzzaman et al. Source

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