Institute of Flight Guidance

Braunschweig, Germany

Institute of Flight Guidance

Braunschweig, Germany
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De Jong P.M.A.,Technical University of Delft | De Jong P.M.A.,Institute of Flight Guidance | De Gelder N.,National Aerospace Laboratory Netherlands | Verhoeven R.P.M.,National Aerospace Laboratory Netherlands | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Aircraft | Year: 2015

A novel integrated planning and guidance concept has been developed that optimizes aircraft trajectories from top of descent to the runway threshold to achieve a continuous engine-idle descent. The new concept, named time and energy managed operations, aims at reducing noise, gaseous emissions, and fuel burn while maintaining airport landing capacity by means of time management. Time and energy managed operations uses an optimization algorithm to minimize thrust and speed brake use through energy management by exchanging kinetic and potential energy. Sustained deviations during descent are corrected using a strategic or tactical approach. Time and energy managed operations is evaluated in a batch simulation study for various disturbances to test its robustness to disturbances and time constraints. Moreover, two different methods of correcting deviations are compared. Results show that time and energy managed operations allows idle descents while adhering to time constraints and can cope with disturbances and updated time constraints. Large wind estimation errors degrade time and energy managed operations performance. ©2014 by Delft University of Technology. Published by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Inc., with permission.


McRoberts R.,Queen's University of Belfast | Early J.M.,Queen's University of Belfast | Korn B.,German Aerospace Center | Price M.,Queen's University of Belfast | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Aircraft | Year: 2015

As the emphasis on initiatives that can improve environmental efficiency while simultaneously maintaining economic viability has escalated in recent years, attention has turned to more radical concepts of operation. In particular, the cruiser-feeder concept has shown potential for a new generation, environmentally friendly, airtransport system to alleviate the growing pressure on the passenger air-transportation network. However, a full evaluation of realizable benefits is needed to determine how the design and operation of potential feeder-aircraft configurations impact on the feasibility of the overall concept. This paper presents an analysis of a cruiser-feeder concept, in which fuel is transferred between the feeder and the cruiser in an aerial-refueling configuration to extend range while reducing cruiser weight, compared against the effects of escalating existing technology levels while retaining the existing passenger levels. Up to 14% fuel-burn and 12% operating-cost savings can be achieved when compared to a similar technology-level aircraft concept without aerial refueling, representing up to 26% in fuel burn and 25% in total operating cost over the existing operational model at today's standard fleet technology and performance. However, these potential savings are not uniformly distributed across the network, and the system is highly sensitive to the routes serviced, with reductions in revenue-generation potential observed across the network for aerial-refueling operations due to reductions in passenger revenue. 2014. Copyright © 2014 by Richard McRoberts. Published by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Inc., with permission.


Peinecke N.,German Aerospace Center | Peinecke N.,Institute of Flight Guidance | Doehler H.-U.,German Aerospace Center | Doehler H.-U.,Institute of Flight Guidance | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Aerospace Information Systems | Year: 2013

This paper summarizes the ideas involved in implementing an imaging radar simulator based on using modern computer graphics hardware. Recent technologies were heavily used, like vertex and fragment shaders, reaching performances up to 90 Hz on a standard workstation. For greater realism, radar shadows were generated, implementing shadow map techniques in the programmable graphics hardware. Furthermore, a Phong-like approach (Phong, B. T., "Illumination for Computer Generated Pictures," Communications of the ACM, Vol. 18, No. 6, June 1975, pp. 311-317) is presented for modeling the bidirectional reflectance distribution function of the mean normalized radar cross section. In the past, different models have been proposed for this task. While being accurate in most cases, they lack an intuitive understanding. The new model is intuitive by making use of categories of diffuse and specular reflections. Although it is computationally more efficient than previous approaches, it is composed of only a few parameters. Finally, examples are given of setups for different types of terrain. The particular implementation is tailored to imitate millimeter wave radar but can be extended for other types of radar systems, and even other sensor types. Copyright © 2012 by DLR e. V. (German Aerospace Center). Published by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Inc.


Luchkova T.,Institute of Flight Guidance | Vujasinovic R.,Institute of Flight Guidance | Lau A.,German Aerospace Center | Schultz M.,Institute of Flight Guidance
Proceedings of the 11th USA/Europe Air Traffic Management Research and Development Seminar, ATM 2015 | Year: 2015

The current regulatory situation in Europe is that flying in forecasted, differently contaminated volcanic ash zones is allowed as long as airline's specific Safety Risk Assessment for volcanic ash events (SRA) is approved. This regulation has the goal to reduce adverse impact of volcanic ash on air traffic management (ATM). There are three different types of SRAs and it is, however, not yet clear what effects on air traffic operations each type eventually has. In this contribution, we concentrate on analysis of those effects: posed number of encounters with volcanic ash cloud as well as the generation of optimized flight trajectories around the cloud. More importantly, we introduce an airspace re-opening scheme during ash crisis situation and investigate its effect. The accent is put on capacity analysis of the air traffic control (ATC) sectors estimated to be more affected by the necessity of re-routing around the areas of contamination. The analysis of the work-load of the controllers responsible for providing services in those sectors is due to the complexity planned for the future work. Important to mention is that European states do not implement this approach and that it therefore presents the novelty in the field. Moreover, European states do not have a unique understanding of SRA approach meaning that, in a few cases, states still decide to close their airspace in case of ash presence. We do not concentrate on that problem in this investigation and treat the European airspace as airspace with harmonized, unique regulatory set up. Volcanic ash data from the International Civil Aviation Organization's (ICAO's) volcanic ash exercise (VOLCEX14/01) and EUROCONTROL's daily traffic data are used as input data for simulations.


Schmidt-Skipiol F.J.J.,TU Braunschweig | Schmidt-Skipiol F.J.J.,Institute of Flight Guidance
15th AIAA Aviation Technology, Integration, and Operations Conference | Year: 2015

Over the last century, aircraft cockpits have been developed into complex environments in which highly automated systems interact with both pilots and each other. These systems together with the cockpit layout as a whole have been subject to constant evolution. However, there is evidence that the design of the Human-Machine-Interface (HMI) has not been considered sufficiently in the process, entailing negative implications for the pilots’ Situation Awareness. This paper gives an introduction in the subject and related problems of HMI in modern, Sidestick-controlled Fly-By-Wire Aircrafts. Subsequently, a concept for a tactile feedback to increase situation awareness regarding a Flight Envelope is being presented. The concept aims at combining the advantages of a Flight Envelope Protection with the advantages of a tactile feedback by means of using an Active Sidestick to indicate to pilots in an intuitive way that the aircraft is approaching the limits of its safe operating range. To evaluate this concept in an experimental simulator study, a testing environment simulating key aspects of this concept has been developed. Afterwards, test subjects with different levels of flying experience were used to survey whether the presented concept can reduce deviance of certain parameters, as speed, bank angle and angle of attack, from given target values. As the analysis of the results indicates, the developed tactile feedback can support adherence of envelope limits, though substantial research and development has yet to be performed. © 2015 American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Inc, AIAA. All right reserved.


Feuerle T.,TU Braunschweig | Feuerle T.,Institute of Flight Guidance | Steen M.,TU Braunschweig | Steen M.,Institute of Flight Guidance | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Aircraft | Year: 2015

Wake-vortex hazards are a huge threat in aviation. These hazards are well accepted in the vicinity of airports (both departure and arrival). But also a number of en route incidents have happened in the past. Current wake-vortex mitigation strategies are based on static distances (in space and/or time). In future air traffic management concepts of Single European Sky Air Traffic Management Research and NextGen, these static distances will be replaced by dynamic separation strategies. Furthermore, concepts for self-separation of aircraft are described. This paper will discuss the work at Technische Universität Braunschweig, where a new concept for wake-vortex hazard mitigation has been developed. The basic idea of the new concept is that only a criticality parameter will be transmitted between aircraft to ensure a safe separation even within new self-separation concepts. The criticality parameter will give an indication about the severity (and therefore criticality to the following aircraft) of the vortices. Additionally, Technische Universität Braunschweig will install wind-turbulence measurement equipment onboard its research aircraft. This installation will be also be described, and the possible usage will be discussed. © 2014 by Institute of Flight Guidance, TU Braunschweig. Published by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Inc.


Gurluk H.,Institute of Flight Guidance | Jauer M.-L.,Institute of Flight Guidance | Uebbing-Rumke M.,Institute of Flight Guidance
HCI-Aero 2014 - Proceedings of the International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction in Aerospace | Year: 2014

Since smartphones and tablets were introduced into consumer electronics, multi-touch technology has been increasingly used for professional purposes. The aim of our research was to determine whether approach controllers could also use gesture-based natural user interfaces for their work. We built a prototype that was evaluated against a comparable mouse interaction concept. In our preliminary study, five test persons were asked to guide air traffic in a realistic scenario with both the multi-touch and mouse mock-up. Usability and workload were assessed. The results revealed higher usability scores for the multi-touch mock-up, whereas the workload evaluation showed no clear trend for either interaction concept. © 2014 ACM.


Kern S.,Institute of Flight Guidance | Schultz M.,Institute of Flight Guidance
16th AIAA Aviation Technology, Integration, and Operations Conference | Year: 2016

Airports are intermodal interfaces between landside and airside traffic. The accompanied infrastructure is planned for target capacity and the expected use inside the (air) transport sector (e.g. intercontinental hub, feeder airport, secondary hub), It cannot easily be adapted to react on increasing demand when exceeding its capacity. Additionally, in densely populated areas, land needed for expansion is very rare, which leads to developments of new technologies and optimizations to cope with the increasing demand. This paper presents an approach to evaluate the effect of technologies increasing the airport capacity regarding to the runway capacity. In this context, a standardized airport model is developed and implemented. Furthermore, the traffic structure including arrival/departure rates and traffic mix (heavy, medium, and light aircraft) as well as runway infrastructure are analyzed to reflect different characteristics of the operational airport environment. This standardized approach allows a reliable benchmark of different runway capacities and overcome the long lasting argumentation of non-comparability based on specific airport characteristics. Finally, this paper provides a fundamental concept as an essential element of a capacity development roadmap using both current and future technologies/procedures. The first results concerning a standardizied airport as representative for all single runway airports show high conformity for the scenario examined. © 2016, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Inc, AIAA. All rights reserved.

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